Reponses to slido questions

General Questions

What role will gas play in the transition to a lower emissions economy?

Gas has been an energy source in New Zealand for 30 years. Natural gas currently contributes approximately 22 per cent of New Zealand’s primary energy needs. Gas will continue to play a role in electricity peaking and meeting our energy supply requirements as we make the transition to a sustainable energy future, in which supply is increasingly met by renewable energy.

How can youth participate in the just transition (including in decision making and planning)?

The role of young people in our transition is one of the most important; engaging our youth to build inter-generational climate action is paramount to combating climate change. The Minister for Climate Change, Hon James Shaw, acknowledged the role of youth in contributing to the Zero Carbon Bill when it was introduced to Parliament in May, giving particular credit to the youth climate organisation, Generation Zero, which first coined the term, Zero Carbon Bill. Young people can participate in the just transition in a variety of ways. Below are just a few ideas – if you want to share your ideas please let us know at justtransitions@mbie.govt.nz

  • The Ministry of Youth Development – Te Manatū Whakahiato Taiohi: The MYD encourages and supports young people to develop and use knowledge, skills and experiences to participate confidently in their communities. Their website includes links to how you can get involved with your local youth council, the youth parliament and other programmes and opportunities.
  • Generation Zero: Generation Zero is a non-partisan, youth-led climate organisation that champions solutions towards a carbon neutral Aotearoa.
  • Te Ara Whatu: Te Ara Whatu is a group of young Māori & Pasifika focused on people and the environment; in 2017 they became the first all-rangatahi Māori delegation to attend a UN Conference at the Climate Change Summit in Poland.
  • For young people in Taranaki – you can stay in the loop with the Taranaki 2050 Roadmap and the team at Venture Taranaki will let you know how you can be a part of the planing for Taranaki’s low emissions future.

Why has a 30 year timeframe been chosen for the transition?

The Productivity Commission notes that New Zealand’s transition to a low emissions economy will “will require consistent and concerted effort across government, business, households and communities – up to and beyond 2050”. The Zero Carbon Bill (currently under select committee consideration) sets a net zero target for 2050. This target aligns with New Zealand’s commitments under the 2015 Paris Agreement, under which parties commit to keeping global average temperature rise to 2 degrees above pre-industrial levels, while pursuing efforts to keep it to 1.5 degrees. The net zero target also reflects the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change findings that, in scenarios consistent with the 1.5 degree temperature goal, global emissions of carbon dioxide need to reduce to net zero around 2050.

How can we make changes to transition to a low emissions future while avoiding the social and economic disruptions, like those experienced in the 1980s?

Transitioning to a low emissions future is going to transform many things: how we power our economy, what products and services we are able to produce and sell how we move around, how we work and how we pay our way in the world, amongst other changes. This is a change on a scale and at a pace that we have not seen before. Planning together for how we are preparing to change and chart our way through this transformation is critical to making sure that we have a productive, sustainable and inclusive future.

Many New Zealanders recall the social and economic changes of the 1980s, where rapid and sometimes unplanned change led to undesirable disruptions and outcomes for workers, families and their communities. The just transition in New Zealand is based on the five pou making decisions together: government, Māori, workers, businesses and the community. The importance of a just transition is that we have everyone at the table together, and that all voices are heard when thinking about the changes ahead and how we will manage them over the years and decades ahead.

What are some practical tools and steps for businesses to start the emissions reduction journey today?

The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority(external link) (EECA) has a wealth of knowledge and programmes to support efficiency improvements and to help switch away from fossil fuels.

The Ministry for the Environment has several web pages where you can learn more about the role you can play in addressing climate change and reducing emissions.

How can we connect, prioritise and emphasise the importance of education and educational actors in a just transition?

Answer approved by Ministry of Education

Education and life-long skills development are critical components of a just transition. Ensuring that the education sector is involved in an ongoing dialogue will be essential as we plan for New Zealand’s transition to a low emissions economy.

In Taranaki, members of the education sector were invited to participate in workshops to co-design the Taranaki 2050 Roadmap. Taranaki will need to ensure the education sector continues to be engaged as the region advances its transition planning and the next steps taken in this area could provide some lessons for the rest of New Zealand.

Schools can play an important role in educating young people about a just transition for New Zealand, and there are opportunities through schools’ local curriculum to bring wider whānau into this conversation. As well as the education sector, businesses, unions, local and central government can all play a role in helping to educate New Zealanders about a just transition to a low emissions economy.

How does a Just Transition relate to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)?

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 for the year 2030.

The sustainable development goals on the UN website(external link)

Just transition principles have interlinkages with several SDGs. For example, SDG 8 (decent work and economic growth); SDG 7 (affordable and clean energy); SDG 10 (reduce inequality) and SDG 1 (no poverty) and all underpinned SGD 13 (climate action). A just transition is about ensuring opportunities are harnessed, change is managed, and all affected stakeholders are able to have their voices heard when planning for a productive, sustainable and inclusive future.

How are we working with Māori and taking Māori perspectives in our work?

(In addition to the inherent importance of Māori values as a part of New Zealand values) The Treaty of Waitangi helps guide us for how we can support and partner with Māori – which means a shared understanding and appreciation of our shared values. Key Māori values will be useful in supporting us to think about policy decisions that will guide the transition to a low-emissions economy. We need to consider key Māori values such as:

  • Whanaungatanga – relationship. We need to be aware of relationships that exist among people and places and the environment (whakapapa) and work to actively nurture and protect these;
  • Kaitiakitanga – stewardship or guardianship of the environment. We need to examine how activities impact upon or support hapū and iwi in their exercise of kaitiakitanga;
  • Mana – having authority. We need to ensure we engage in ways that are attentive to the mana of people and communities;
  • Utu – maintaining balance. We need to identify which communities or peoples benefit from, or are disadvantaged by, a low-emissions policies. Support may be needed to restore balance;
  • Te Ao Turoa – an intergenerational concept of resource sustainability.

These all resonate strongly with our commitment to use a just transition approach to a low-emissions economy. This approach is about:

  • understanding the different pathways we have to transform our economy (to one that is more productive, sustainable and inclusive);
  • partnering with Māori/iwi, local government, business, communities and the workforce to identify, create and support new opportunities, new jobs, new skills and new investments that will emerge from transition;
  • understanding how impacts of transition are distributed across the economy and making choices about how we manage these in an equitable and inclusive way; and
  • building the social licence necessary to be ambitious in our approach to transforming the NZ economy.

Additionally, Te Arawhiti (Office for Māori Crown Relations) is dedicated to fostering strong, ongoing and effective relationships with Māori across Government. They have developed an engagement framework to help support agencies to build their capability to effectively engage and partner with Māori.

Taranaki 2050 Roadmap

Hydrogen from renewable sources is worth pursuing. But making hydrogen from fossil fuels is not. Is Taranaki preparing to invest in renewable hydrogen, not fossil hydrogen?

Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

Taranaki-based companies are certainly preparing to invest in ‘green hydrogen’ produced by using renewable electricity to electrolyse water to produce hydrogen (and oxygen). The best example of this is the joint venture between Hiringa Energy and Balance Agri-Nutrients which was announced in May 2019. This project is focused on using wind power to produce green hydrogen.

Stuff article on the joint venture(external link)

How does government and local government truly include all Taranaki Iwi? Existing permits in Taranaki affect the whenua o Taranaki which compromises iwi/hapu/whanau, particularly in Ngaruahine and Taranaki.

Question answered by MBIE and Waid Crockett, South Taranaki District Council:

Māori and iwi have an important leadership role in a just transition context, and in many cases are ahead of the Crown in their thinking and implementation of just transition principles. Iwi principles focus on environmental, social and cultural values, in addition to financial outcomes, and their long-term commitment to their regions and communities spans generations. We need to harness this knowledge for broader application, and to underpin our enduring partnership on how we support a smooth transition for all New Zealanders.

The use of a just transitions approach has emphasised the strong desire for stakeholders and Māori to be treated as partners by the Government in transition planning and action.

“For LG (in South Taranaki) it’s about looking at what our response is to Climate Change and setting policies and plans that will assist with any change. South Taranaki has some well-developed relationships with its Iwi partners and as our plans and policies are formulated we will continue to engage with Iwi on these before they are finalised.” – Waid Crockett, South Taranaki District Council

What tools and procurement strategies can local government start using to immediately deliver investment in low carbon infrastructure?

Question answered by New Plymouth District Council:

At New Plymouth District Council we are already incorporating criteria and thinking into our procurement practices that consider:

  • whole-of-life costs (such as related to energy efficiency) of a project
  • a potential future alternative energy source such as hydrogen
  • opportunities for carbon capture/reduction technology

We have also:

  • made significant energy savings throughout our infrastructure and continue to look for more
  • reduced the number of vehicles in our fleet, moved to more efficient vehicles and have a range of electric bikes for staff to use instead of driving
  • begun a procurement process to bulk buy e-bikes and e-scooters that staff purchase and pay back in their salary – a program we hope to promote to other employers

The proposed District Plan is also likely to result in more flexibility for developments that will e.g. promote sustainable transport, energy efficiency and/or renewable energy in some locations. This is still to be determined.

We are also looking at an option, where appropriate, to influence our suppliers through agreed contracts i.e. agreeing key performance indicators to continually reduce carbon, agree a set reduction each year and also encourage alternative ideas and proposals for carbon reduction technology etc.

What is the timeframe for the establishment of the New Energy Development Centre?

The National New-Energy Development Centre (NNEDC) had $27 million set aside in Budget 2019. Before any expenditure on this initiative can be incurred the business case needs to be finalised, including finalised costs. Once the final business case is approved by Joint Ministers (Minister of Finance, Minister of Energy and Resources and Minister for Economic Development) an establishment phase for the new centre will commence, with projections for completion of this around 1 July 2020 at which time a new legal entity will be formed to operate as the NNEDC.

What tangible projects and programmes will be developed to make the emerging pathways a reality? Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

A programme of work will take place from July-December to create an Action Plan of projects that could work together to make the vision of Taranaki 2050 a reality.

Do you think 2050 is appropriate? What would stop you achieving the Taranaki roadmap by 2030?

Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

As well as aligning to the nation’s ambition for net-zero carbon in 2050, this Roadmap allows a 31 year transition time to make the move as smooth as possible for those impacted the most by changes that will affect the region.

Is there much consultation with academics and researchers when discussing these prospects, particularly when discussing education?

Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

The Taranaki 2050 People & Talent workshops (where education conversation was focussed) were attended by teachers, educators, policy makers and many more. Since launching the Roadmap we’ve embarked on a month-long school campaign to visit Taranaki schools to encourage feedback from Tamariki and teachers to further gather thoughts of the region’s educators. NZEI also submitted their specific feedback to the Roadmap.

The role of the wider education sector seems to be missing from the road map. Why? If we are serious about long term solutions we need to breakdown silos.

Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

The role of education in Taranaki 2050 has been strengthened in the visual depiction of the Roadmap following feedback in the consultation phase. In the picture there’s now more instances of students completing field work with teachers, youth visiting Marae for learning opportunities, as well as the introduction of a ‘skills training’ centre. The existing ecoschool still remains, as does the instances with apprentices learning on the job. Where you see one instance of something, it represents many, and education options that move and flex with a changing world came through as a key theme in workshops and consultation. Within the report, education has also been strengthened.

Can we please have a version of the Roadmap in Te Reo Māori?

Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

Thanks for your suggestion – we will have a look into this.

Are Taranaki iwi part of the decision making in the drafting and design alongside govt and others with the roadmap?

Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

Taranaki Iwi are members of our Lead Group, who govern and helped design the Taranaki 2050 project.

Where is local government shown in the Road Map

Question answered by Venture Taranaki:

Local government is represented in the Regulatory emerging pathway. 

Click the 'regulatory' link on the Taranaki 2050 page(external link)

Do you think NZ understand that solar panels are not a strong climate action in NZ? (As opposed to other countries with high proportions of fossil fuel generated electricity, where solar is a fantastic climate action)

As a Government we are ambitious for our energy system. We’ve set ambitious goals in this area–a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050 and an aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035. We aim to make the long term transition of our economy towards renewable energy while ensuring that our energy supply remains secure, affordable and sustainable in the years and decades to come.

A major piece of work for us this year will be to develop policies as part of an upcoming Renewable Energy Strategy work programme. We’re looking into the areas where Government action can make the biggest difference - identifying the incentives that may be needed, the roadblocks that need to be removed, and how we can help new technologies come on stream. It’s about getting the policy and regulatory settings right for us to move into an energy future that is built on greater renewables, while ensuring affordability and security.

One part of the Renewable Energy Strategy work programme is accelerating renewable electricity generation. Work is underway to look at options to accelerate the deployment of renewable electricity generation, to contribute to our aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035 in a normal hydrological year. This work includes identifying barriers and developing policy options to reduce them.

Solar generation is currently a small proportion of New Zealand’s energy supply, making up only 0.1% of our total renewable energy. Price reductions in solar PV equipment have made it more popular with homeowners and businesses,
despite the fact that for most it remains more costly than grid-supplied electricity.

Solar PV is regarded as a ‘disruptive technology’ as it challenges the traditional model of electricity provision. Along with other disruptive technologies (such as advanced metering, smart devices, advanced batteries) it’s likely to contribute to changes in energy market design, energy policy and pricing structures in the future.

Solar can have strong climate mitigation effects linked with other technologies. One example is the proposal by the refinery to produce hydrogen for petroleum production via solar powered electrolysis.

Lessons from International Leaders

Are we going to admit we're actually behind globally in our capability around regional development? Ruhr is a good example of being left behind. E.g. simple bus changes in Wellington could not be achieved. So do we need to up skill yourself?

The just transitions approach is relatively new to New Zealand and we have the opportunity to learn from international best practice. And we are confident that we have started a positive transition pathway with the Taranaki 2050 Roadmap.

NZ has a large number of SME businesses, what mechanisms will be created to support, challenge, encourage and enable the transition of these businesses that are contributors to community and creators of growth and employment in Regional NZ

The government already runs a host of programmes to support SMEs. For example, through business.govt.nz; and the Regional Business Partners Programme. The Provincial Growth Fund is also supporting regional growth in both business development and employment.

Can outdated regulation get in the way? If so what regulatory changes are needed to enable a swift transition?

There is no doubt that some regulatory changes will be required, especially to enable the uptake of new technologies and business models, such as those growing up around smart energy grids. We have the opportunity to learn from global leaders in this regard, such as California.

Considering the experience and scale by the international community with these transition processes. What common mistakes can we avoid to further accelerate NZs and Taranaki transition in a shorter timeframe, e.g. a 10 year target

One of the lessons from our own economic restructurings and the global experience of just transitions is not to rush things and go at a pace faster than communities can work with.

What didn’t go well in your country that we should try avoid?

N/A (question posed for the panel; difficult to answer on behalf)

The large automakers (car and truck companies) employ thousands of workers building internal combustion engines. These companies also own this technology. How can we ensure the shift away from this technology in a just way.

A successful transition will depend on behaviour change by government, investors, businesses, households and consumers. The private sector will lead the large-scale investments required to effect meaningful and positive change. Government has a critical role to play in facilitating a market response to the climate change challenge, including through an effective ETS, high-quality regulation and effective standards.

Project ongoing in Scotland and scheduled to come on line in 2020. World first large scale tidal project revolutionising renewable energy. Could this be of consideration between Cook Straight or similar in conjunction with Iwi?

There are early stage wave energy proposals in New Zealand. And we are watching a number of renewable energy projects overseas including Scotland closely for possible application in New Zealand.

What would you have done differently in South Australia’s transition to renewables if you had your time again?

From video transcript:

I think I probably would have made the case for why more powerfully and significantly. I think in government what we tend to do too often is to get on with the what and when, whereas if you spend a little bit more time on the why, you can, I think, it can assist, because then you, in fact, usually the answers fall out pretty simply once you've got a really solid appreciation for why you're doing something.

Questions that could not be answered on behalf of the panel

  • If you were to give New Zealand advice, how would you suggest we start our transition planning?
  • From overseas: how have the goals of central government and regional/city councils been coordinated and aligned?
  • What help was given in the Ruhr and South Australia to small and medium businesses as these regions went through their transitions?
  • How beneficial were government subsidies in the Uk to kickstart renewables ? 
  • Question for Franz-Josef: you showed us that the Ruhr Valley has had a long history of transition. What are the current drivers and mechanisms for the ongoing and future transition in the region?
  • South Australia invested heavily in renewables over the last decade and now has amongst the highest household electricity bills in the world. They also have major blackouts. What has Jay learned from this?
  • What had been the role of the likes of SANTOS in the South Australian story N/a (question posed for the panel; difficult to answer on behalf)
  • What’s you prediction for the Australian elections and what will it mean for the renewable energy sector in Australia.

How is Aotearoa New Zealand transitioning?

Jacinda said herself and unions are saying this too, that we need the community to demand change. So what will government do to help community members (not leaders) to be able to participate more in this just transition and rebuild co-ops?

The principles of a just transition to reinforce the value of ensuring all can be at the table. All parties have a role in this, but government has an important responsibility to help create the space and time for this to happen as far as possible before important decisions are made.

Regenerative agriculture and reforestation of Taranaki is key to a low carbon future- can you talk to this please?

n/a (question posed for the panel; difficult to answer on behalf)

Kevin mentioned that our climate crisis and biodiversity crisis come from the same mindset that people and environment are inputs into our economy. How do we change this mindset? What structures can support this mindset shift?

Government has a critical role to play in facilitating a market response to the climate change challenge, including through an effective ETS, high-quality regulation and effective standards.

However, to achieve a successful and just transition, we also need to understand the nature of the transition pathways ahead and how the impacts might be distributed across regions, sectors or communities so that we can be informed and deliberate about how we manage impacts, and leverage opportunities, in an equitable and inclusive way.

What’s unique about New Zealand that we need to factor into this transition?

New Zealand has a unique relationship with tangata whenua, which must be respected and fully realised. Engagement should be early and partnering (as per Te Tiriti o Waitangi) should be one of the fundamental principles when interacting with Māori.

In addition, New Zealand also has an atypical emissions profile with nearly half of all emissions arising from the agriculture sector.

In some countries new energy projects must be co-owned with the local indigenous people. Should we adopt this model in New Zealand?

A just transition is about making sure that the Government carefully plans and collaborates with iwi, communities, regions and sectors to manage the impacts and maximise the opportunities of the changes brought about by the transition to a low emissions economy.

An integral part of any inclusive and successful regional economic development strategy lies with supporting Māori to create new opportunities that will lift incomes and the wellbeing of our regions. Thus, the Provincial Growth Fund (PGF) will invest up to $100 million to help unlock the economic potential of whenua Māori and build prosperity in our regions. Funding will enable Māori to access the capital required to progress projects which are investment-ready.

Questions sent to Fonterra for comment

  • Could Robert Spurway address what Fonterra is going to do to cut down on the 48% of greenhouse gases caused by Agriculture?
  • Energy is only 10% of Fonterra’s emissions. When will it make its first commitment to cut the other 90% from biological sources?
  • With agriculture contributing to almost 50% of carbon emissions what is Fonterra and all of its farmers committed to do to significantly reduce this impact and do these plans align with what climate change scientists are suggesting
  • What is Fonterra doing on agricultural methane reduction?
  • Could Fonterra become a plant-based milk and milk product company?
  • What is Fonterra ACTIVELY doing to transition from dairy?
  • How will a leading company such as Fonterra pivot the farming system to using stock as a enhancer to growing other food sources? I.e. Milk to Soy and vegetable products?
  • How will a leading company such as Fonterra pivot the farming system to using stock as a enhancer to growing other food sources? I.e. Milk to Soy and vegetable products?
  • For Robert although it’s great to be more efficient with fossil fuels, but how and are you going to shift from red meat protein to alternative sources?
  • Fonterra have made grand gestures around no fossil fuels by 2050, but have not taken any measures to minimise the impact in the meantime. Why aren’t the north island coal boilers converted to gas now until the roadmap can be realised?
  • What is the latest thinking on converting coal based Fonterra sites to something better...electrifying, gas, biomas, hydrogen....?
  • How is Fonterra willing to support farmers to learn and adopt Regenerative Practices?
  • What is Fonterra doing about biological emissions and moving to less volume and higher quality product?

Lessons from the Pacific

How does climate change policy affect Pacific Islands’ relationships with China?

n/a (question posed for the panel; difficult to answer on behalf)

Changing the Model

How can we better manage the economic, environmental and political costs of stranded high-emission assets?

This is particularly a question for the small number of high emissions companies such as Methanex and New Zealand Steel. While the forthcoming Climate Change Commission will provide a focus for how such emitters fit within a whole of economy approach to achieving a net-zero emissions economy by 2050 and where the costs of carbon should fall, it should, be remembered that it is the private sector owners of these assets that will ultimately decide their future.

In the future, who do you think will continue to foresee the plans that are put in place now?

The Zero Carbon Bill includes a requirement that the Government publish a plan to meet future emissions budgets. The plan would provide a longer term strategy for the economy and society to support the transition.

Navigating the future of work

Will our government commit to replacing every lost job with another decent paying job on at least a 1:1 ratio?

Response from video transcript:

Government is working with unions and business on how to support workers in a time of increased churn and job turnover. In the longer-term, we may see shifts in how work is organised, and replacing jobs on a 1:1 basis may not be reflective of the world we are entering into. For that reason, Government is more focused on how to support the creation of decent high-paying jobs, and ensuring that people have the skills and attributes to navigate career transitions, than committing to a particular target.

Various future of work questions:

  • What role can targeted workforce training and capability enhancement at entry, trades and professional levels play?
  • What is the role of Government in workforce planning?
  • Preliminary studies have identified the Pacific workforce will be most impacted by automation. How can your organisations commit to partnering with Pacific community leaders & employees to ensure they don’t get left behind?
  • We’ve heard about the opportunity in the Just Transition. China is adding Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the school curriculum. What is the Govt. and business strategy to ensure young people today are match fit for the future of work?
  • What personal support will be provided to help those impacted to navigate (understand themselves and their options, explore, make decisions, and take actions) and successfully develop their careers through the transition?
  • How do we move away from our low wage, low productivity, low skills investment economy to get a Just Transition?
  • There is a lot of emphasis on the Employer training the Employee but where will the Employer gain the correct training to then train the Employee. Especially within a small business.
  • We heard about retraining employees and developing softer skills such as emotional intelligence & collaboration. What kinds of jobs will people use these skills in? How are we creating these?
  • If people's pay is based on supply and demand, how can we captilise on technology to increase pay per hr, and work less hrs per week?

Future of work issues, including the role of targeted work training and workforce planning, are best addressed in a coordinated manner.

For this reason the Government established the Future of Work Tripartite Forum in August 2018 as a partnership between Government, the Council of Trade Unions (CTU), and Business New Zealand. This tripartite approach was adopted to ensure that the respective interests of the parties are recognised and to promote collaboration to manage the challenges and opportunities of the future of work.

The Forum currently has a work programme focused around four broad themes: just transitions, learning for life, technology, and productivity in the workplace.

More information can be found on the Treasury website(external link)

The Forum is in the process of developing a strategic assessment, to more clearly articulate the role of the Forum in preparing New Zealand for the future of work. This essentially will combine the best evidence about the range of potential impacts of future of work impacts, a sense of how New Zealand can seize the opportunities and challenges of future of work, and the specific role of the Forum (and each of the Forum partners). Updates to this work will be published on the Treasury’s Future of Work website, noted above.

We are aware that future of work impacts will not be evenly distributed. Any work we do will need to be in partnership with affected communities.

Recruitment and retention in education is at an all-time low, how is the government going to address this to provide training and education towards a Just Transition?

The Government announced a number of initiatives this year to address the long term challenge of teacher shortages, by training or supporting 3280 additional teachers over the next four years. These initiatives include scholarships to cover fees and living costs for trainees studying in hard to staff subject areas, Teach First NZ places to recruit graduates and professionals into low decile secondary schools where they teach while completing a postgraduate teaching qualification, a new employment-based teacher education programme for secondary teachers, and Iwi-based scholarships.

“Tagging workers” is a scary concept. How do we avoid treating people as though they are a skill set, not a person?

A person’s working life is only part of their overall life. We will need to take care that any career and worker support we provide reflects this view.

21st Century Economics – Questions for Kate Raworth

What will it take to remove the barriers to collectives getting the capital required to move away from the top down capitalist business models so business decisions are about the 'we'not the 'me'?

From video transcript:

We need to redesign those fundamental traits of business. To me it's about networks and governance but profoundly it's about the ownership and the financing of business. And for me this is really important because in the 20th century many of the technologies we needed, like oil rigs and big factories, needed to bring a lot of capital together, and so you had shareholder owned companies. But in the 21st century we've got desktop technologies. It means that companies can be much more agile, and much smaller, and owned by a smaller group of people. It's opening up unprecedented opportunity for employee ownership, community ownership, cooperative ownership. We need legal designs of business to keep up with the possibilities of far more distributive business than has happened in the past.

With the sense of urgency around addressing climate change, do you think political processes are agile enough to enable action to be taken in the time frame needed?

From video transcript:

That’s a biggie. I think political processes that are conducted as political processes in Parliament alone will not be fast enough, no. But that's why so many citizens around the world are recognising that politics is actually what happens between elections and we need to get on the streets and be the citizen protester. The school strikes, the rise of Greta Thunberg, and other students like her around the world. In London I was very proud to take part in extinction rebellion. Because we then got after just 10 days of disruption of London, the British Parliament for the first time in it feels like three years managed to agree on something which is that we have a climate emergency in the UK, and are beginning to bring in place legislation. The 2050 targets that countries are setting themselves, let me be honest, I think the goal of zero carbon by 2050, I'm beginning to think it's a bit like in 1950 Roger Bannister said he wanted to run a mile in less than four minutes and people said that's impossible. It took him four years to run a mile in less than four minutes, but after he had done it his record was broken in 46 days. And today over 1500 people have run a mile in less than four minutes. Barriers seem unbreakable until someone strolls right through them or runs right through them and then others follow, and I think countries like yours and mine that are starting to say let's go for net zero carbon by 2050, will actually run faster.

Kate, what advice would you give to NZ govt about dealing with the elephant in our economy, agriculture?

From video transcript:

We talk about net zero carbon but actually what we should really be talking about is not being zero carbon, we need to be regenerative. All of our countries need to work within cycles of carbon. And actually there are many regenerative practices in agriculture already, people producing crops and foods of many kinds while enriching soil carbon, while capturing more carbon in the soils through new techniques. So I think there's an incredible revolution and renaissance of agricultural possibilities that's going to lie ahead of us.

Questions posed to the panel that are difficult to answer on behalf

  • What lessons can we learn from other countries making this transition?
  • The circular economy is a fantastic concept but has limits in energy supply and the limitations of materials to be recycled (such as plastics). Increase in population increases economic activity and extraction. How to manage that?
  • How do we need to change our frameworks for measuring economies? If we get what we measure, what are the new metrics we need?
  • We need to continue the increasing rate of change of the last century to achieve a rapid turn-around, but should we also be planning for a slower pace of change in a post crisis d-e world.
  • For Kate - great presentation but its unclear what government policies you are really recommending - what are three policy changes you would recommend NZ adopting.
  • For Kate Raworth: market investors = all of us saving for retirement (e.g. KiwiSaver). Right now we rely on growth for our future security. What alternative models have been proposed and how to transition? 
  • Kate - Have you given this speech in the US? How did it go down? 
  • To Kate - I have come up against many circular silos. Ideas on progressing to network circularity while maintaining or creating new business models?
  • Kate Raworth, seeing Doughnut economics as an extension of Steady State Economics, can a country like NZ go it alone in changing its economic goals?
  • From the graph, it looks like NZ has blown out its ecological ceiling more than China has? 
  • How accessible and objective is the donut dashboard? 

Navigating the new environment

Thanks for the $27m Government. What about also bringing energy-related Govt agencies to Taranaki too, and getting them out of Wellington?

The Government has announced funding for the National New Energy Development Centre to be based in Taranaki. There are no plans at this stage to relocate central government agencies to regions, but some agencies including MBIE’s Provincial Development Unit are ensuring that people are based in regions in order to be able to undertake their jobs effectively.

We now have 5 reviews or reports calling regional active labour market leadership groups ie Just Transition, vocational education, welfare reform, future of work, immigration review. How do we ensure that this work is coordinated

This is an ongoing role for MBIE and central agencies and we are very conscious of the need to align the different strands of work to ensure that they are coherent together.

After agriculture, transport is the next greatest contributor to greenhouse gases. There has been little discussion around transport and transport infrastructure from any of the industry leaders and politicians so far. What next for this?

There has been a great deal of discussion around this and a massive increase in the priority and funding being given to walking and cycling and low emissions transport systems such as public transport and rail. Work is also well underway to accelerate the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles across the economy once they are widely available and affordable.

The oil and gas industry has littered our land and sea with wells, pipes and processing plants and we now know well casings fail after 60 yrs. Will they be held to account to clean up their mess including 60+yrs down the track?

The Government has developed the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Bill. The purpose of the Bill is to provide a framework by which New Zealand can develop and implement clear and stable climate change policies that contribute to the global effort under the Paris Agreement to limit the global average temperature increase to 1.5° Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

The Bill sets a long-term emissions reduction target for 2050 and proposes that the Government set five-yearly emissions budgets to provide certainty in the short- to medium-term. The Bill is designed to give New Zealanders confidence that climate change policies and the long-term emissions reduction pathway will remain stable and predictable and continue delivering prosperity.

This Government is concerned to ensure industry operates in an environmentally responsible way – now and in the future. The recently released Terms of Reference for the Tranche Two Review of the Crown Minerals Act 1991 set out how the review will consider ongoing liability for current and future wells. The Terms of Reference state “Permit holders who fail to appropriately abandon petroleum wells expose the Crown and third parties to health, safety, and environmental costs or risks. Currently, the Crown cannot compel permit holders to plug abandoned wells, nor is there any statutory timeline for plugging and abandoning wells”.

The Tranche Two Review of the Crown Minerals Act 1991 will look at how the Act could be strengthened to protect third parties and the Crown from risks arising from poor abandonment of wells, (for example, through the inclusion of a financial assurance mechanism).

A discussion document seeking public feedback will be released in late 2019.

We’re in a crisis. Is it time the Government declared a climate and ecological emergency?

Government is currently prioritising putting in place the long term and enduring mechanisms to reduce emissions and adapt to unavoidable climate change impacts.

What is the Government doing to create certainty and predictability across the policy environment to support long-term planning and investment?

The Government has developed the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Bill. The purpose of the Bill is to provide a framework by which New Zealand can develop and implement clear and stable climate change policies that contribute to the global effort under the Paris Agreement to limit the global average temperature increase to 1.5° Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

The Bill sets a long-term emissions reduction target for 2050 and proposes that the Government set five-yearly emissions budgets to provide certainty in the short- to medium-term. The Bill is designed to give New Zealanders confidence that climate change policies and the long-term emissions reduction pathway will remain stable and predictable and continue delivering prosperity.

When will the government release the ICCC reports?

The ICCC reports on agriculture and electricity were released on 16 July 2019.

Downloaded the reports from the Interim Climate Change Committee website(external link) 

Will your Govt support CCS to deliver zero emissions electricity and fertiliser from Natural Gas (e.g. projects like 8 Rivers)?

As a Government we are ambitious for our energy system. We’ve set ambitious goals in this area– 100% renewable electricity by 2035 and a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050. We aim to make the long term transition of our economy towards renewable energy while ensuring that our energy supply remains secure, affordable and sustainable in the years and decades to come. A just transition is about making sure that the Government carefully plans and collaborates with iwi, communities, regions and sectors to manage the impacts and maximise the opportunities of the changes brought about by the transition to a low emissions economy.

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the process to remove carbon dioxide, from waste gases produced in large-scale industrial processes and permanently store it underground, where it will not enter the atmosphere.

The rationale to adopt carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in New Zealand is different from other countries. Compared to other countries, New Zealand has relatively few point sources of CO2 emissions and a far higher renewable contribution to electricity generation. This means that CCS has limited potential to help New Zealand mitigate climate change. New Zealand's international approach has been to support the uptake of CCS, in particular by countries that emit large amounts of CO2. New Zealand's support for the international development of CCS does not prejudge any decision on whether or when CCS might be undertaken in New Zealand. New Zealand currently has no CCS projects operating or under development.

A major piece of work for us this year will be to develop policies as part of our Renewable Energy Strategy for New Zealand. We’re looking into the areas where Government action can make the biggest difference - identifying the incentives that may be needed, the roadblocks that need to be removed, and how we can help new technologies come on stream. It’s about getting the policy and regulatory settings right for us to move into an energy future that is built on greater renewables, while ensuring affordability and security.

We aim to support a range of diverse energy projects that will help decrease greenhouse gas emissions and further our goal of reaching a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050.

MBIE's page on carbon capture and storage(external link)

Productivity Commission's report on low emissions(external link)

Is it likely that the private sector will transition quickly enough if a CEO's main driver is to increase shareholder value?

Many CEOs can already see that transitioning to a low emissions business models is essential for the preservation of shareholder value. Some other businesses that are locked in to emissions intensive production methods face much greater challenges in addressing them.

Tourism depends upon foreign visitors, yet international air travel accounts for at least 1% of global emissions. How can we reconcile growth of tourism with reducing emissions?

There are two ways to address this. The first is to move up the value chain in this sector so that the carbon intensity per dollar of tourism revenue is reduced. The second is to support, and be an early adopter of, low carbon transport systems. Some domestic tour operators are already looking at electric camper van and low emissions coaches. There is also scope for the market to develop bio-jet aircraft fuel. Electric aircraft are also being developed and deployed, with aircraft types typically deployed for regional flights projected to be available in the 2020s.

Should we have a Beef and Sheep tax?

The approach to dealing with agricultural emissions is set out in the draft Climate Change Response Act.

There’s been a lot of discussion around energy and agriculture. What initiatives does the government have planned to transition the tourism industry?

A great deal of work is going into improving the sustainability of the tourism sector as detailed in the New Zealand- Aotearoa Government Tourism Strategy. 

New Zealand - Aotearoa Government Tourism Strategy on the MBIE website(external link)

So what Kaitiakitanga requirements could be included in the block offer.

Traditionally, Māori believe there is a deep kinship between humans and the natural world. Traditionally, Maori believe that there is a deep kinship between humans and natural world. In the Māori world view, people are closely connected to the land and nature. Kaitiakitanga is based on this idea of humans as part of the natural world. Kaitiakitanga means guardianship and protection. It is a way of managing the environment.

The New Zealand Government allocates petroleum exploration permits in an annual tender called a ‘Block Offer’. The Government values Maori beliefs, perspectives and principles and will continue to engage with iwi on all policies.

Can New Zealand really make a difference?

We can do our bit. And in areas such as management of agricultural emissions we are able to advance world-leading research.

What about the mining needed for renewable energy production? High-efficiency electricity generation uses magnets made from metals, eg neodymium, often found in sea floor nodules. Will the govt endorse sea floor mining in order to facilitate renewable energy generation?

Minerals play a role in the everyday lives of all New Zealanders now and in the future as we build a productive, sustainable and inclusive economy.

To effectively transition to a low emissions economy, we need raw minerals to produce clean technology such as batteries, solar panels and wind turbines. For example, copper, aluminium and rare earth elements are required to produce a wind turbine, and lithium, graphite, cobalt, titanium along other minerals are required to produce an electric vehicle.

There may be opportunities for New Zealand to meet the domestic and global demand for clean tech minerals and lead the way in climate-smart mining techniques, which focus on sustainable and environmentally responsible mining operations.

The Petroleum and Minerals Strategy for NZ aims to create a minerals and petroleum sector that is more environmentally responsible and efficient. It also encourages planning now for the resources we will need in the future; to realise a clean, green future, we will need clean tech minerals in particular to produce the technologies of the future. This strategy will be released for public consultation in the near future.

What’s the timeline for the establishment of the green energy innovation centre in New Plymouth?

The National New-Energy Development Centre (NNEDC) had $27 million set aside in Budget 2019. Before any expenditure on this initiative can be incurred the business case needs to be finalised, including finalised costs. Once the final business case is approved by Joint Ministers (Minister of Finance, Minister of Energy and Resources and Minister for Economic Development) an establishment phase for the new centre will commence, with projections for completion of this around 1 July 2020 at which time a new legal entity will be formed to operate as the NNEDC.

How are you going to ensure small businesses like an independent small town petrol station whose owner may have all their personal wealth tied to the business and works long hours for a relatively low profit is not going to lose all worth?

Changing consumer demand has affected all businesses for decades and businesses have adapted and changed accordingly. Leading fuel retailers are already seeing more of their revenue come from non-fuel sales and are looking to secure their positions as a regular place to visit in the community through investing in alternative fuel provision such as EV charging.

What is the likelihood of ecologically likeminded nations to implement a tariff regime to incentivise eco performance?

While the likelihood of climate related border adjustments (tariffs) enters the media from time to time, such approaches are extremely problematic within existing international trading arrangements so are unlikely to eventuate. What is more likely is that major economies and blocks, such as the EU, will regulate to drive the production of low emissions goods in their own markets and thus determine the nature of global output for many goods. One example of this is the setting of end dates for the sale of traditionally powered light vehicles in leading European markets.

Will the Government consider actions resulting in the closure of the Bluff Aluminium smelter, freeing up enough electricity to power the country's entire vehicle fleet, and invest in the infrastructure to redistribute this energy north?

The smelter recently opened another pot line but the options for investing in additional electricity transmission in the event of closure have long been well known. In the meantime, generators and transmission and distribution system operators are already planning to meet future electricity demand, including projections for the likely availability of electric vehicles.

What is Government's role in the transition?

The government is taking a leading role in co-developing sector transitions plans recognising that it is firms, works, Iwi and local government and communities that will deliver much of the transition.

How will we protect our Maunga and resources?

All New Zealanders are responsible and have a role in protecting our taonga and the natural environment. We all need to take up the challenge and figure out how best each of us can contribute to collective action and ensure we protect and preserve the environment for future generations.

We all know we are in “Transition” what key actions will your GOVT take in key industries such as Education, Health, Transport etc...to reduce carbon emissions?

Options are being explored to decarbonised Health and Education which account for the vast majority of state sector stationary energy related emissions.

Why is the government not looking at CCS when major European economies are and the IEA say without it we cannot achieve the Paris goals?

The rationale to adopt carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in New Zealand is different from other countries. Compared to other countries, New Zealand has relatively few point sources of carbon emissions and a far higher renewable contribution to electricity generation. This means that CCS has limited potential to help New Zealand mitigate climate change. New Zealand's international approach has been to support the uptake of CCS, in particular by countries that emit large amounts of carbon. New Zealand's support for the international development of CCS does not prejudge any decision on whether or when CCS might be undertaken in New Zealand. New Zealand currently has no CCS projects operating or under development.

Should businesses going to be forced to give data on the volume of co2 emissions to the government so we can create a plan to offset it?

The government has long managed an emissions reporting and inventory regime in line with its international obligations.

When will the govt move to an EV fleet? Won’t that help create a secondhand EV market?

All vehicles entering the Government fleet should be fully electrified (where suitable vehicles exist in specialist applications) from 2026. And yes, one of the considerations for adopting this policy are the spillover benefits for the second hand fleet.

The transition is to “lower emissions”. Natural gas has lower emissions than coal and could be near zero with CCS technology. Is there a role for natural gas and CCS in the transition?

Gas has been an energy source in New Zealand for 30 years. Natural gas currently contributes approximately 22 per cent of New Zealand’s primary energy needs. Gas will continue to play a role in electricity peaking and meeting our energy supply requirements as we make the transition to a sustainable energy future, in which supply is increasingly met by renewable energy.

The rationale to adopt carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in New Zealand is different from other countries. Compared to other countries, New Zealand has relatively few point sources of CO2 emissions and a far higher renewable contribution to electricity generation. This means that CCS has limited potential to help New Zealand mitigate climate change. New Zealand's international approach has been to support the uptake of CCS, in particular by countries that emit large amounts of CO2. New Zealand's support for the international development of CCS does not prejudge any decision on whether or when CCS might be undertaken in New Zealand. New Zealand currently has no CCS projects operating or under development.

David - is Z really going to transition out of petrol in the next 10 years? What are your feasible options given the sense of urgency

Question answered by Z Energy:

Petrol will likely remain in the energy mix in the next 10 years, but with declining volumes. The role we intend to play, that we believe is feasible, is to accelerate lower carbon options for our customers, targeting net zero carbon by 2050. Electric vehicles are a viable alternative to petrol vehicles, and car-sharing services play a role in reducing car use and ownership. Feasible options for Z are to ensure we remain in the business of keeping people and goods moving. Examples of what we’ve done here so far is our purchase of Flick Electric, and our investment in electric car sharing company Mevo. Given we think that battery electric vehicles are the likeliest replacement option for cars and other light vehicles, we’ve been concentrating our efforts on the heavy, long haul fleets – vehicles that use diesel, jet fuel and marine fuels. The most feasible options here in our view are biofuels and hydrogen.

Does Z expect to ever earn a return from its biodiesel plant and acquisition of Flick? If so when?

Question answered by Z Energy:

We built our biodiesel plant because it was the right thing to do for our customers and because we believe we can at the very least break even over time. Depending on what happens with customer support for the product, relative price of the tallow feedstock and the carbon price, we may in time turn a profit.

Yes, we expect to earn a return from our investment in Flick. We expect Flick to breakeven by April 2021.

David - Z Energy Businesses founded on fossil fuels need to come to the realisation that they are vending and profiting from diminishing resources that are also ultimately not good for our planet.Z - Energy Green Hydrogen? just a thought.

Question answered by Z Energy:

We agree that low or zero emissions hydrogen could have real potential for long haul heavy vehicles. Z is part of the New Zealand Hydrogen Association and are actively participating in the conversation on hydrogen, and the potential for New Zealand.

Using technology for good - together

The following questions have been sent to Microsoft to answer.

  • Why is a representative of an US corporation like Microsoft the only one speaking about using "technology for good"? Don't we have heaps of exceptional NZ owned tech companies that would be much more committed to NZ's environmental future?
  • IoT and AI are usually packed within black boxes (proprietary). Wouldn't be better to open source their algorithms and processes so the whole society can work together?
  • How do we avoid the human habit of arguing about the silver bullet eg battery electric vs hydrogen vs biofuels, isn’t it a case of these technologies working together in the “internet of fuels” Quantum computing has always been ten years away. When will it not?
  • Given the data breaches we have seen, how can we be sure that data in the cloud is not being scraped for saleable data?
  • There are many cases of algorithms being proven to show bias and to entrench stereotypes - how do we ensure that AI can be 'just'?
  • Many data centres used by NZ firms are based in Sydney or Melbourne using coal based electricity. Does NZ have the scale to host its own data centres using renewables?
  • Why has Microsoft removed discounted pricing for many non-profit organisations?
  • How do you expect us to take your participate in just transition conversations seriously when the tech companies employment practices are anything but just?
  • In light of Kate's comments about having an open economic ecosystem with innovation, how does Microsoft comment on the reality that tech corporations are monopolies, which restricts innovation & ecosystem development?
  • How much tax does Microsoft pay in NZ?
  • My question asking how much tax Microsoft pays in NZ has disappeared. So I ask it again. Microsoft question: so if we take up digital and cloud services, will Microsoft contribute to a just transition by paying its fair share of tax?
  • To Russell Craig. Why has Microsoft joined a coalition whose aim is to kill off historic climate change lawsuits, meant to give oil companies immunity from lawsuits?
  • At what point will Microsoft’s global reach become global control?
  • Microsoft sells intangible which require regular updates of hardware. What commitment does MS have to reduce waste and the global trend of dumping it in landfills or developing countries?
  • Where is your security of data if everything is feed into the cloud?
  • Will you make your technology affordable?
  • Why does my question about affordable technology keep disappearing? Surely Microsoft can keep prices down rather than leverage profit if they are all for reducing emissions

Learning to fly

Are there safety measures in Cora to avert the sort of accidents regarding autonomous vehicles?

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

Aviation has a very high standard of safety and we have to meet that standard before we can carry passengers. Safety is paramount for us. One of the key reasons for bringing an air taxi service to market here, is because New Zealand is recognised for its safety-focused regulatory environment and strong history of excellence in airspace management.

Cora has a number of safety features including:

  • Independent rotors: because our fans and propellers are electric, they can operate independently. An issue with one has no effect on the others;
  • Triple Redundant Flight-Computer: Cora is equipped with three independent flight- computers that each calculate its location. If there’s an issue with one of them, Cora can still reliably navigate;
  • A parachute that launches if Cora needs to land without its fans.

What research have you done around the viability of flying for urban transport? UberAir is also due to launch in California in 2020 - but have we learned from the Pan Am disaster? And will this ever be affordable?

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

A recent report by Morgan Stanley values the autonomous urban aircraft industry as a $1.5 trillion global market by 2040. We have done our own research into the various components of the ecosystem that are needed to deliver a successful and sustainable air taxi service. The interest Cora has already received confirms this is what people want - a quicker, cleaner, fun way of getting around. Who wouldn’t want to swap sitting in traffic to flying above it? Safety and reliability are foundations of the modern aviation industry and new technologies entering airspace are subject to that same level of rigour. The and certification process we are going through is rigorous and robust. The NZ Civil Aviation Authority’s practices are highly respected by the worldwide regulatory community, and that was one of the reasons New Zealand was selected as an ideal partner.

Will your first commercial NZ flight leave from Richard Pearce Airport in Timaru :-)?

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

We love the fact that we are currently testing less than 100kms from where Richard Pearse first flew. As a US/NZ collaboration, we are mindful of our combined aviation history and will be reflecting that as we shape the future of sustainable personal air transport. We know that Cora’s maiden flight with passengers is going to be a poignant occasion irrespective of the location. Not only as a major milestone in the evolution of urban transportation, but because it will symbolise a remarkable, collective effort from the Zephyr/Kitty Hawk teams and our Kiwi partners, underpinned by the support of New Zealand

How are personal aircraft such as Cora going to help us with a Just Transition?

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

From day one, Cora was designed with the planet in mind. Cora, and electric aircraft represent the start of an evolution in aviation which we hope will move us away from fossil-fuel dependent travel to one with no emissions. We recognise this is a big change to how people move around, as well as a major change of the mobility enablers – from fossil fuel to electric. We know that for a transition to be effective, it can’t be sudden or made in isolation. That’s why we’ve been actively connecting with interested groups and engaging with government, iwi, community and business to understand their needs, hopes and dreams, as well as their concerns. This is a critical path on our roadmap. Relationships matter and our company is committed to building a sustainable business in every sense of the word. For example, we have hired locally and are building a local team. At the same time, we are identifying opportunities to grow skills by working with tertiary institutions to address training and learning gaps.

So, it’s not just the what but the how. We’d like to think that how we are working and collaborating will achieve a just transition for New Zealand, as well as providing a blueprint for others looking to bring about a substantial change for the benefit of Kiwis.

Could the used CORA batteries be used for housing & solar?

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

There have been some major advancements in battery technology in the last decade. Cora, and electric vehicles (aircraft and cars) are likely to represent opportunities across a whole lot of different parts of our ecosystem.

How weather dependant is Cora

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

We are currently working with the CAA in New Zealand on the certification pathway to ensure that our aircraft meets all the requirements, including weather, it needs to operate reliably.

We are spending a lot of time talking about transport of people rather than about alternatives to travelling to work and the technology for working virtually.

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

Advancements in telecommunications technology have certainly enabled virtual working and keeping us connected with loved ones. Cora is all about connections. Not just taking you from A to B, but connecting skills to opportunities, people with places, communities with businesses. Personal air transportation is likely to be one of several ways we will be ‘transporting’ ourselves around in the future. To develop an air taxi service of the future, you also need to develop the right environment for it to operate and it needs to be socially accepted. Considerations around noise and privacy are important factors that will require a public conversation.

Will there be aircraft flying around our heads?

Question answered by Zephyr Airways:

When any new technology comes into the marketplace there is considerable work that needs to go into the ecosystem that will allow it to operate. That is the case of when we went from the horse drawn cart to the car, more than 100 years ago. The advent of electric aircraft and autonomous aircraft also require careful thought about how we manage and regulate our airspace. Those conversations have started and will be happening-at community, union, government, iwi and industry levels.

Embracing change - energy

Thoughts on Pouakai project...wouldn’t it help New Zealand transition to a low emissions, higher value economy?

The Pouakai Project aims to use a novel technology that would create hydrogen from natural gas, and proposes to capture and store the emitted CO2 potentially resulting in lowered emissions. The production and use of such “blue” hydrogen is a business decision and at the discretion of the businesses involved in the Pouakai Project.

The energy industry used to be owned by towns and communities. And then it moved to central government and private sector ownership models. How important is it to develop new community ownership models, like we have seen in California?

Large-scale energy development, such as wind farms, geothermal, and hydro energy, already provide cost-effective and ‘clean’ electricity in New Zealand. Another way of harnessing the power of New Zealand’s energy resources is through small-scale generation, also known as ‘micro-generation’ or community ownership models. This is energy generation on a domestic or household scale.

Micro-generation is also an important component of what is emerging as the ‘smart-grid’; a concept that replaces the existing model of one-way electricity supply from centralised generation plant to end users with an arrangement that allows for electricity to flow in optimal ways and directions, depending on the conditions at the time.

There are multiple benefits to micro-generation. Micro-generation allows community ownership of energy generation. This enables communities to be self-sufficient in their energy production. Micro-generation increases energy system resilience, decreases transmission distribution costs and reduces cost of fuel imports. Micro-generation or community ownership models allow consumers to trade electricity (peer to peer trading).

Investing in small-scale distributed generation can provide financial benefits to investors by reducing reliance on gridsupplied electricity and can also have a positive impact on the environment. Micro-generation may allow previously passive consumers of electricity to become more engaged and active participants in managing their energy needs.

Technology improvements and decreasing costs of some micro-generation, especially PV, along with rising energy prices and a growing popular interest in sustainability, mean that micro-generation is likely to become increasingly attractive and cost competitive, leading to greater uptake.

400,000 kiwis use natural gas. It has lower emissions than others and could be lower with CCS. A role in the transition?

Gas has been an energy source in New Zealand for 30 years. Natural gas currently contributes approximately 22 per cent of New Zealand’s primary energy needs. Gas will continue to play a role in electricity peaking and meeting our energy supply requirements as we make the transition to a sustainable energy future, in which supply is increasingly met by renewable energy.

Questions posed to the panel that are difficult to answer on behalf

  • How do Mercury, Genesis and Contact see the future role of distributed micro-generation evolving as an integrated part of the electricity sector?
  • James Kilty - given relationships are personal, how do you maintain those over time with staff changes inherent in companies?
  • How is Meridian monitoring and reporting on the discharged dissolved CO2 from geothermal generation?
  • James can you talk about Contacts commitment to transition Wairakei away from discharging to the Waikato River
  • As part of the just transition will electricity companies switch to cost based pricing to reduce the burden on
  • All panelists: We’re hearing about long-term personal relationships between Maori orgs and power
    companies. BUT how will that work when we have shorter job life going forward in the new world of work?
  • A question for Tracey: if you are aware of it please describe the reconsenting of the Huntly Power Station at the time of the (eventually partial) privatization of Genesis? A great example of consultation, including with Waikato Iwi.

Changing land use and the future of food

Given the decline in dairy sales globally why is the government so scared to demand big dairy reduce their biological emissions to net carbon zero?

Global milk consumption is growing at around 1% per annum. Most milk is consumed in the country in which it is produced. Global cross-border dairy trade volumes have been growing at 4% per annum for 20 years, with moderate price gains across the cycle leading to export value growth . Much of this growth is driven by increasing demand in Asia, particularly China. New Zealand’s significantly increased production in the last 20 years is a response to this demand. Cows emit biological methane which is a short-lived greenhouse gas, decaying out of the atmosphere in around 12 years. If methane emissions are stabilised, that is, no more is produced than decays, then this is in effect a net zero emission. However, the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Bill sets a target for a 10 percent reduction in biological methane emissions by 2030, and aims for a provisional reduction ranging from 24 percent to 47 percent by 2050.

Doesn't the big compromise on methane lock in business as usual for the livestock industries until 2030 - even though this is the biggie for NZ?

Biological methane is a short-lived gas. Stabilising methane emissions in effect means that methane is no longer contributing to warming. Reducing methane emissions in effect contributes to cooling. The Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Bill sets a target for 10 percent reduction in biological methane emissions by 2030. This will drive change in the industry, in land-use and in value creation. Already a great deal of investment has gone into adding value to our primary production in recent years, and exports of all added value foods are now about $7 billion per annum.

In addition, the dairy industry and sheep and beef farming are the basis of many regional economies in New Zealand. From a Just Transitions perspective it is important to balance the wellbeing of these communities with the climate change imperative.

If agriculture particularly beef and dairy, are such contributors to greenhouse gases shouldn't we be taxing this industry to lower demand so we can start to push alternative meat and dairy options and change behaviour?

See questions above.

When acknowledging good employment conditions needed in agriculture do you acknowledge that is not the case now and what will you do as government to set and enforce better workers conditions in agriculture?

This has been a long standing problem that needs more work. It is real problem for the overall sustainability of the sector as it is a major disincentive to people entering the agricultural workforce.

With the farm industry causing the most greenhouse gases how will we compensate for their jobs when most farmer workers have not been educated in any other industry

A Just Transition in the agricultural sector will likely entail changes in land use, e.g. from pastoral to cropping or horticulture (where the land is suitable). In addition, there is a long-term trend in New Zealand for more processing of primary production into added value products. Changing land use does not imply fewer jobs. Temperate climate food producing countries, e.g. in Europe, employ many more people in the food industry per tonne of raw material produced than New Zealand does, as a result of focusing on value creation rather than volume growth. Research commissioned by MBIE shows that the New Zealand food and beverage industry has potential to create 88,000 new jobs over the next 10-15 years, while still addressing environmental issues. These jobs will come from diversification is what is produced from the land, and more processing in final consumer products post-farm gate.

There has been an unjust transition to unsustainable agriculture , particularly in areas such as the Canterbury plains and Mackenzie country with diary conversions. Should the government work towards a just transition in these regions?

Maintaining and restoring environmental values is important to all New Zealanders. The Government’s overall goal is for growth to occur through value creation rather than increasing volumes, as we move to a productive, sustainable and inclusive economy over the next 30 years. Promotion and support for sustainable agriculture is a key part of this, but any regulatory response must also be seen to be fair. Ensuring that local communities and farmers in all regions have the necessary support to transition will be important.

So farmers make emotive decisions and saddle themselves with debt and we all bear the environmental costs?

New Zealand is an open market economy and in converting to dairy or intensifying in other ways, farmers are generally responding to market signals and making commercial decisions along with externals advisors and the banks (who finance the debt) in the context of the regulatory framework in which they operate, which includes environmental standards and the need to obtain consents. A lot of work by farmers has gone into riparian planting and other measures to reduce runoff and improve water quality. This work will continue and is likely to accelerate.

I am sick of the mixed messages. Yesterday a speaker from the dairy industry said we want to supply more and more exported meat in the future, how is that transitioning to low emissions if we are not thinking of alternatives?

Different interests in the economy have different perspectives on the future. The key driver for change in the long term will be changes in market demand combined with the changes in production. For example, increasing numbers of New Zealanders, particularly young New Zealanders, are adopting vegetarian and vegan lifestyles. Retailers report sales for plant-based products like vege burgers, tofu and falafel have soar 20 per cent in the past year. In addition, international companies like Impossible Foods have developed plant-based meat analogue products, and this trend is likely to grow.

How does exporting meat to the uk help to reduce carbon emissions?

Research carried out by Professor Caroline Saunders of the Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit of Lincoln University in 2006 looked at the Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry compared to that of the UK. The research looked at the total energy used in the production of dairy and lamb in each country, incorporating the energy used in transporting New Zealand product. The results of this analysis show that NZ products compare favourably with lower energy and emissions per tonne of product delivered to the UK compared to other UK sources. In the case of dairy NZ is at least twice as efficient; and for sheep meat four times as efficient. From a whole of planet perspective, it is better to produce dairy and lamb in New Zealand than in the UK.

Food Miles – Comparative Energy/EmissionsPerformance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry(external link)

Will NZ be able to offer climate neutral milk and meat? The livestock farmers are saying no? If that's the case, why use zero carbon legislation to protect their vested interests?

If methane emissions are stabilised, then yes, production of New Zealand milk and meat will be climate neutral. To be truly climate neutral, emissions produced in the processing and transport of these products will also have to addressed.

Would a cross-sector farming levy organisation like the UK’s AHDB, instead of the current fragmentation of farming industry bodies, help remove road blocks to adoption of alternative and mixed land use?

Potentially a well-funded cross-sector body similar to the UK’s AHDB could play an important role. However, the establishment of such an organisation would need to be supported by the industry.

Perfect Day Foods is making bovine protein from yeast and sugar. Solar foods is making protein powder from electricity and air. Why are we still concentrating on adding value to commodities rather than true innovation.

There is a lot of effort and resources going into developing alternative low or no impact methods of making protein. This increased competition to traditional food production systems is - and will be - the key driver of innovation. Our challenge is to move with the market. New Zealand companies like Sunfed Foods are already doing this. The future in the medium term is both doing more with the raw materials we produce, and investing in disruptive innovation where this makes sense.

Will and if so how, will protein manufacturing (beyond meat) impact on NZ Ag over the next 10,20 and >30 years?

In the case where protein can be made in factories using processes such as those employed by Impossible Foods, Solar Foods etc, or if growing meat in vats becomes viable, it is likely that such factories will be located close to major markets. New Zealand needs to work out where it can be successful in these emerging consumer markets, which is through finding its own plant-based advantage. The future may also be about servicing high-end premium markets, such as occasional meat eaters, and focusing more on horticulture or products with a unique New Zealand component, mānuka honey being one example.

How do you produce more dairy without adding more stock or turning more land into pasture? Neither option is viable for the climate

New Zealand has an excellent track record in increasing dairy productivity, so more output does not necessarily mean more cows. And as we accelerate the move from commodities to value added products, it is certainly true that producers can make more money per unit of production.

Healthy eating guidelines worldwide are likely to change in future to acknowledge starch and sugar are the worst health threat, not saturated fat as previously thought. Sweden has changed already. What are the implications for future food?

Market forces such as consumer preferences, combined with regulations around health guidelines, will drive changes in the consumer products produced by manufacturers and brands.

what impact will climate change in itself have on our farming systems? Will the ‘old ways’ be possible or too risky? Will new opportunities present themselves?

Changes in the climate will inevitably impact farming and farmers may have to adopt new farming systems or change land-use. Some types of farming may longer be viable in warmer or more volatile conditions. There will be increased risks, but opportunities may also emerge, e.g. in arable cropping.

Questions that could not be answered on behalf of the panel

  • Plant based systems generally require plowing planting harvesting not best suited to hill country what’s the panels vision for hill country farming.
  • For Steve Carden: Why are Federated Farmers and other farming industry bodies so determined to stand in the way of necessary changes that many farmers want?
  • To Steve Carden - what does regenerative agriculture mean, what impact and what role does that play in PAMU s future ethos?
  • Why does Pam’s (landcorp) use pine plantations as part of its environmental plan. 
  • Steve do you Agriculture needing to pay the living wage 
  • Did I just hear that PAMU is going to offer hemp fed cow milk?

Emerging opportunities - hydrogen

Do you think industry will be able to afford green hydrogen at 10 times the cost of natural gas? And will government assist, other than pushing the price of natural gas up to be more expensive?

Earlier this year NEL noted that renewable hydrogen already beats fossil fuel options in terms of total cost of ownership. NEL claims that at $50 USD/MWh hydrogen is becoming competitive with fossil fuels, and at $30 USD/MWh hydrogen is competitive in all markets. Given the declining costs of renewables and the planned scaling up of electrolyser production, NEL predicts hydrogens competitiveness in all markets is imminent.

Read the Nel hydrogen presentation(external link)

NEL’s observations are echoed by other researchers[1] who find that hydrogen is already cost competitive in niche applications and is projected to become cost competitive with industrial-scale supply of hydrogen within a decade.

The IEA in its 2019 report on the future of hydrogen for the G20 predicts that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable energy could fall by 30 per cent by 2030 as a result of the declining cost of renewables and scaling up of hydrogen production. In terms of price, the IEA predicts that by 2030 hydrogen produced from renewables will likely be in the price range of 2-4 USD/kg compared to hydrogen produced from gas without carbon capture and storage predicted to cost from 1.5 to 3 USD/kg (from graph on page 53 of report). There is a range of uncertainty to both of these figures and meaning that the IEA’s predictions could have renewable sourced hydrogen cheaper or alternatively more expensive than gas derived hydrogen by 2030.

Organisations in the New Zealand domestic market are already investing in hydrogen. For example, Ports of Auckland has committed to building a hydrogen production and refuelling facility. The company, along with its project partners Auckland Council, KiwiRail and Auckland Transport will invest in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as part of the project. Similarly, Tuaropaki Trust has partnered with Japanese multinational Obayashi Corporation to construct a pilot hydrogen production facility using geothermal electricity. This indicates that New Zealand firms are seeing the potential and opportunities for hydrogen in our future economy.

The H2 Taranaki Roadmap was launched in March 2019. This Roadmap, which was developed by Hiringa Energy with support from Venture Taranaki, New Plymouth District Council and the Provincial Growth Fund, illustrates how the region can use its existing skills and infrastructure to become a leader in hydrogen production.

Hiringa Energy has secured funding through the Provincial Growth Fund to help develop hydrogen fuel infrastructure in Taranaki. The project will scope the engineering and design of two hydrogen generation facilities, up to four mobile compressed hydrogen storage and distribution containers, and up to three hydrogen refuelling stations. The establishment of hydrogen production, storage and refuelling infrastructure will build upon the region’s existing energy sector skills and distribution networks. This will enable Taranaki to grow new business opportunities across New Zealand and deliver integrated hydrogen networks for the whole country.

As a government, we are in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

The Government is also supporting hydrogen, through the Low Emissions Contestable Fund. Projects to get the green light in the last round included hydrogen fuel cell powered buses at the Ports of Auckland along with electric heavy vehicle trials, development of an EV battery testing method and 34 new public charging stations.

The Government will invest $27 million to establish a National New Energy Development Centre in Taranaki. The Centre will help create new business and jobs in Taranaki while helping New Zealand move towards clean, affordable, renewable energy and away from fossil fuels. The centre will look at the full range of emerging clean energy options such as offshore wind, solar batteries, hydrogen and new forms of energy storage. The Government has also committed $20 million over four years to establish a new science research fund for cutting edge energy technology.

Our plan is all about moving us towards an affordable and renewable future, while providing leadership in order to advance the development of a low emission hydrogen economy in New Zealand.

[1] Economics of converting renewable power to hydrogen, Gunther Glenk and Stefan Reichelstein, Nature Energy, volume 4, 2019, pages216–222

Is hydrogen usable as a viable fuel source now? If not, how much development is needed until it is?

Earlier this year NEL noted that renewable hydrogen already beats fossil fuel options in terms of total cost of ownership. NEL claims that at $50 USD/MWh hydrogen is becoming competitive with fossil fuels, and at $30 USD/MWh hydrogen is competitive in all markets. Given the declining costs of renewables and the planned scaling up of electrolyser production, NEL predicts hydrogens competitiveness in all markets is imminent.

Read the Nel hydrogen presentation(external link)

NEL’s observations are echoed by other researchers[1] who find that hydrogen is already cost competitive in niche applications and is projected to become cost competitive with industrial-scale supply of hydrogen within a decade. The IEA in its 2019 report on the future of hydrogen for the G20 predicts that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable energy could fall by 30 per cent by 2030 as a result of the declining cost of renewables and scaling up of hydrogen production. In terms of price, the IEA predicts that by 2030 hydrogen produced from renewables will likely be in the price range of 2-4 USD/kg compared to hydrogen produced from gas without carbon capture and storage predicted to cost from 1.5 to 3 USD/kg (from graph on page 53 of report). There is a range of uncertainty to both of these figures and meaning that the IEA’s predictions could have renewable sourced hydrogen cheaper or alternatively more expensive than gas derived hydrogen by 2030.

Organisations in the New Zealand domestic market are already investing in hydrogen. For example, Ports of Auckland has committed to building a hydrogen production and refuelling facility. The company, along with its project partners Auckland Council, KiwiRail and Auckland Transport will invest in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as part of the project. Similarly, Tuaropaki Trust has partnered with Japanese multinational Obayashi Corporation to construct a pilot hydrogen production facility using geothermal electricity. This indicates that New Zealand firms are seeing the potential and opportunities for hydrogen in our future economy.

The H2 Taranaki Roadmap was launched in March 2019. This Roadmap, which was developed by Hiringa Energy with support from Venture Taranaki, New Plymouth District Council and the Provincial Growth Fund, illustrates how the region can use its existing skills and infrastructure to become a leader in hydrogen production.

Hiringa Energy has secured funding through the Provincial Growth Fund to help develop hydrogen fuel infrastructure in Taranaki. The project will scope the engineering and design of two hydrogen generation facilities, up to four mobile compressed hydrogen storage and distribution containers, and up to three hydrogen refuelling stations.

As a government, we are in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

Our plan is all about moving us towards an affordable and renewable future, while providing leadership in order to advance the development of a low emission hydrogen economy in New Zealand.

[1] Economics of converting renewable power to hydrogen, Gunther Glenk and Stefan Reichelstein, Nature Energy, volume 4, 2019, pages216–222

Transition in energy may include a hydrogen pathway. Establishing that sector here in Taranaki with blue hydrogen with carbon capture seems to meet the PMs criteria outlined this so will the government support this Just outcome?

Hydrogen has the potential to play a significant role in New Zealand’s energy system. Green Hydrogen offers a flexible and clean approach to energy for New Zealand. In the domestic market, hydrogen could potentially heat our buildings, power our vehicles, supply our industrial processes and increase energy system resilience. These applications represent opportunities to create jobs while lowering our CO2 emissions and enhancing our energy system.

Blue hydrogen can be made from our natural gas through the process of steam methane reforming (SMR) and the possible storage of any produced CO2. The production and use of blue hydrogen is a business decision and at the discretion of the businesses. The Government has set an aspirational goal of 100% electricity by 2035 and a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050. Thus, the Government will continue to progress NZ towards an affordable, renewable future and provide leadership in order to advance the development of a low emission ‘green’ hydrogen economy in New Zealand.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

The rationale to adopt carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in New Zealand is different from other countries. Compared to other countries, New Zealand has relatively few point sources of CO2 emissions and a far higher renewable contribution to electricity generation. This means that CCS has limited potential to help New Zealand mitigate climate change. New Zealand's international approach has been to support the uptake of CCS, in particular by countries that emit large amounts of CO2. New Zealand's support for the international development of CCS does not prejudge any decision on whether or when CCS might be undertaken in New Zealand. New Zealand currently has no CCS projects operating or under development.

With the change of oil and gas to hydrogen as a emerging opportunity as a new fuel for NZ what is been planned for those who already work in the oil and gas industry to moving them into this new opportunity.

The production and transportation of hydrogen requires workers with similar skills. Indeed, traditional gas infrastructure is often readily adaptable for hydrogen.

Is there a place for “blue” hydrogen in NZ, if it can be manufactured in a way that’s emissions free?

Hydrogen has the potential to play a significant role in New Zealand’s energy system. Green Hydrogen offers a flexible and clean approach to energy for New Zealand. In the domestic market, hydrogen could potentially heat our buildings, power our vehicles, supply our industrial processes and increase energy system resilience. These applications represent opportunities to create jobs while lowering our CO2 emissions and enhancing our energy system.

Blue hydrogen can be made from our natural gas through the process of steam methane reforming (SMR) and the possible storage of any resulting CO2. The production and use of blue hydrogen is a business decision and at the discretion of the businesses. The Government has set an aspirational goal of 100% electricity by 2035 and a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050. Thus, the Government will continue to progress NZ towards an affordable, renewable future and provide leadership in order to advance the development of a low emission ‘green’ hydrogen economy in New Zealand.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

Will green hydrogen when used either for electricity production or displacing diesel in our heavy vehicle fleet be competitive / affordable relative to current fuels sources?

The Government aims to achieve a net zero carbon economy by 2050. This ambitious goal requires the transition away from an energy system which relies heavily on hydrocarbons (oil, coal and gas), to one that is based on renewable energy sources.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper, “A vision for hydrogen in New Zealand”. A vision for hydrogen in New Zealand, considers the opportunities green (zero carbon) hydrogen could bring and how it could fit into the wider energy and transport systems, as well as the role it could play in decarbonisation. It then frames discussions for a national hydrogen strategy.

Earlier this year NEL noted that renewable hydrogen already beats fossil fuel options in terms of total cost of ownership. NEL claims that at $50 USD/MWh hydrogen is becoming competitive with fossil fuels, and at $30 USD/MWh hydrogen is competitive in all markets. Given the declining costs of renewables and the planned scaling up of electrolyser production, NEL predicts hydrogens competitiveness in all markets is imminent.

Read the Nel hydrogen presentation(external link)

NEL’s observations are echoed by other researchers[1] who find that hydrogen is already cost competitive in niche applications and is projected to become cost competitive with industrial-scale supply of hydrogen within a decade. The IEA in its 2019 report on the future of hydrogen for the G20 predicts that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable energy could fall by 30 per cent by 2030 as a result of the declining cost of renewables and scaling up of hydrogen production. In terms of price, the IEA predicts that by 2030 hydrogen produced from renewables will likely be in the price range of 2-4 USD/kg compared to hydrogen produced from gas without carbon capture and storage predicted to cost from 1.5 to 3 USD/kg (from graph on page 53 of report). There is a range of uncertainty to both of these figures and meaning that the IEA’s predictions could have renewable sourced hydrogen cheaper or alternatively more expensive than gas derived hydrogen by 2030.

Organisations in the New Zealand domestic market are already investing in hydrogen. For example, Ports of Auckland has committed to building a hydrogen production and refuelling facility. The company, along with its project partners Auckland Council, KiwiRail and Auckland Transport will invest in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as part of the project. Similarly, Tuaropaki Trust has partnered with Japanese multinational Obayashi Corporation to construct a pilot hydrogen production facility using geothermal electricity. This indicates that New Zealand firms are seeing the potential and opportunities for hydrogen in our future economy.

Hiringa Energy has secured funding through the Provincial Growth Fund to help develop hydrogen fuel infrastructure in Taranaki. The project will scope the engineering and design of two hydrogen generation facilities, up to four mobile compressed hydrogen storage and distribution containers, and up to three hydrogen refuelling stations.

Please comment on Concept Consulting’s three reports ( Wellington) on the difficulties of a hydrogen industry?

Concept Consulting’s three-volume study examines whether hydrogen technologies are likely to be cost-effective solutions for decarbonising New Zealand's economy. It examines both 'green' hydrogen produced from renewable electricity, and hydrogen produced from natural gas coupled with carbon capture and storage.

It finds that hydrogen could be economic for some niche applications, but for the majority of New Zealand's energy needs hydrogen is unlikely to become cost-competitive with alternative low carbon options, particularly direct use of electricity for electric trucks, process heat boilers and heat pumps. In large part this is due to the energy losses and additional capital costs associated with converting electricity into hydrogen, rather than using the renewable electricity directly.

The study also indicates that there may be opportunities for New Zealand to export hydrogen to "renewables-poor" countries such as Japan to decarbonise their economies.

The costs and benefits of hydrogen, however, are only fully appreciated when the whole energy system, including life cycle analysis from cradle to grave, is analysed.

Earlier this year NEL noted that renewable hydrogen already beats fossil fuel options in terms of total cost of ownership. NEL claims that at $50 USD/MWh hydrogen is becoming competitive with fossil fuels, and at $30 USD/MWh hydrogen is competitive in all markets. Given the declining costs of renewables and the planned scaling up of electrolyser production, NEL predicts hydrogens competitiveness in all markets is imminent.

Read the Nel hydrogen presentation(external link)

NEL’s observations are echoed by other researchers[1] who find that hydrogen is already cost competitive in niche applications and is projected to become cost competitive with industrial-scale supply of hydrogen within a decade.

The IEA in its 2019 report on the future of hydrogen for the G20 predicts that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable energy could fall by 30 per cent by 2030 as a result of the declining cost of renewables and scaling up of hydrogen production. In terms of price, the IEA predicts that by 2030 hydrogen produced from renewables will likely be in the price range of 2-4 USD/kg compared to hydrogen produced from gas without carbon capture and storage predicted to cost from 1.5 to 3 USD/kg (from graph on page 53 of report). There is a range of uncertainty to both of these figures and meaning that the IEA’s predictions could have renewable sourced hydrogen cheaper or alternatively more expensive than gas derived hydrogen by 2030.

[1] Economics of converting renewable power to hydrogen, Gunther Glenk and Stefan Reichelstein, Nature Energy, volume 4, 2019, pages216–222

How does the NZ Government intend to incentivise the commercial development of hydrogen technology, considering its high cost implication in comparison with fossil fuels?

The Government is investing funds through the Provincial Development Fund, science funding and the establishment of a new National Energy Development Centre.

Hiringa Energy has secured funding through a Provincial Growth Fund to help develop hydrogen fuel infrastructure in Taranaki. The project will scope the engineering and design of two hydrogen generation facilities, up to four mobile compressed hydrogen storage and distribution containers and up to three hydrogen refuelling stations. The establishment of hydrogen production and refuelling infrastructure will build upon the region’s existing energy sector skills and distribution networks. This will enable Taranaki to grow new business opportunities across New Zealand and deliver integrated hydrogen networks for the whole country.

The Government will invest $27 million to establish a National New Energy Development Centre in Taranaki. The centre will help create new business and jobs in Taranaki while helping New Zealand move towards clean, affordable, renewable energy and away from fossil fuels. The centre will look at the full range of emerging clean energy options such as offshore wind, solar batteries, hydrogen, geothermal and new forms of energy storage.

The Government has also committed $20 million over four years to establish a new science research fund for cutting edge energy technology, so that we can explore new technologies such as organic photovoltaics, super conductors, nanotechnologies and inductive power. The Government is developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. The green paper will also lay out a broader vison for how green hydrogen could contribute to New Zealand’s net zero emissions goal. The green paper and the submissions on it will feed into New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

Last year, New Zealand signed a Memorandum of Cooperation with Japan’s Economy, Trade and Industry Minister on the development of hydrogen technology. This memorandum helps signal New Zealand’s interest in working in partnership with Japan to develop hydrogen technology as we move towards a low carbon economy.

Organisations in New Zealand are already investing in hydrogen. For example, Ports of Auckland has committed to building a hydrogen production and refuelling facility. The company, along with its project partners Auckland Council, KiwiRail and Auckland Transport will invest in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as part of the project. Hydrogen fuel cell powered buses at the Ports of Auckland were funded by the Low Emission Vehicles Contestable Fund.

Tuaropaki Trust has partnered with Japanese multinational Obayashi Corporation to construct a pilot hydrogen production facility using geothermal electricity. This indicates that New Zealand firms are seeing the potential and opportunities for hydrogen in our future economy.

What is the target percentage of hydrogen production for export and domestic use to be commercially effective?

While some individual companies may have estimated what a target percentage might be for hydrogen to be commercially effective, the Government does not yet have a view on this. We note however that a recent International Energy Agency report on hydrogen finds that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewables electricity could fall by 30% by 2030 as a result of declining costs of renewable energy and the scaling up of hydrogen production. Fuel cells, refuelling equipment and electrolysers (which produce hydrogen from electricity and water) could also benefit from mass manufacturing.

Japan has pilot projects with Brunei and Australia for hydrogen from gas and coal with CCS. What are NZs chances to compete against them?

Green Hydrogen offers a flexible and clean approach to energy for New Zealand.

Blue hydrogen can be made from our natural gas through the process of steam methane reforming (SMR) and the possible storage of resulting CO2. The production and use of blue hydrogen is a business decision and at the discretion of the businesses. The Government has set an aspirational goal of 100% electricity by 2035 and a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050. Thus, the Government will continue to progress NZ towards an affordable, renewable future and provide leadership in order to advance the development of a low emission ‘green’ hydrogen economy in New Zealand.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

In February 2018, Tuaropaki Trust and Obayashi Corporation announced the signings of a Memorandum of Understanding to develop plans for a hydrogen production facility at the Mokai Geothermal Power Station in Taupō.

On 23 October 2018, the Minister of Energy and Resources, Hon Dr. Megan Woods, signed a Memorandum of Cooperation with Japan’s Minister for Economy, Trade and Industry to cooperate in the development of hydrogen technology. The Memorandum, which is the first of its kind, signals New Zealand’s interest in working with Japan on developing a hydrogen industry. It will also assist Japanese corporations in reaching financial decisions regarding the development of hydrogen technologies.

Why doesn’t Japan use renewable energy of their own to produce hydrogen?

Japan imports fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) for about 94% of its primary energy supply, making it effectively impossible to meet its goal to cut emissions (from a 2013 baseline) by 26% in 2030 and 80% in 2050. Japan has identified imported hydrogen as a low-emission fuel that can be used in power generation, mobility, heating and industrial processes.

Is hydrogen really the answer - isn't it too expensive?

Earlier this year NEL noted that renewable hydrogen already beats fossil fuel options in terms of total cost of ownership. NEL claims that at $50 USD/MWh hydrogen is becoming competitive with fossil fuels, and at $30 USD/MWh hydrogen is competitive in all markets. Given the declining costs of renewables and the planned scaling up of electrolyser production, NEL predicts hydrogens competitiveness in all markets is imminent.

Read the Nel hydrogen presentation(external link)

NEL’s observations are echoed by other researchers[1] who find that hydrogen is already cost competitive in niche applications and is projected to become cost competitive with industrial-scale supply of hydrogen within a decade.

The IEA in its 2019 report on the future of hydrogen for the G20 predicts that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable energy could fall by 30 per cent by 2030 as a result of the declining cost of renewables and scaling up of hydrogen production. In terms of price, the IEA predicts that by 2030 hydrogen produced from renewables will likely be in the price range of 2-4 USD/kg compared to hydrogen produced from gas without carbon capture and storage predicted to cost from 1.5 to 3 USD/kg (from graph on page 53 of report). There is a range of uncertainty to both of these figures and meaning that the IEA’s predictions could have renewable sourced hydrogen cheaper or alternatively more expensive than gas derived hydrogen by 2030.

Organisations in the New Zealand domestic market are already investing in hydrogen. For example, Ports of Auckland has committed to building a hydrogen production and refuelling facility. The company, along with its project partners Auckland Council, KiwiRail and Auckland Transport will invest in hydrogen fuel cell vehicles as part of the project. Similarly, Tuaropaki Trust has partnered with Japanese multinational Obayashi Corporation to construct a pilot hydrogen production facility using geothermal electricity. This indicates that New Zealand firms are seeing the potential and opportunities for hydrogen in our future economy.

The H2 Taranaki Roadmap was launched in March 2019. This Roadmap, which was developed by Hiringa Energy with support from Venture Taranaki, New Plymouth District Council and the Provincial Growth Fund, illustrates how the region can use its existing skills and infrastructure to become a leader in hydrogen production.

Hiringa Energy has secured funding through the Provincial Growth Fund to help develop hydrogen fuel infrastructure in Taranaki. The project will scope the engineering and design of two hydrogen generation facilities, up to four mobile compressed hydrogen storage and distribution containers, and up to three hydrogen refuelling stations.

[1] Economics of converting renewable power to hydrogen, Gunther Glenk and Stefan Reichelstein, Nature Energy, volume 4, 2019, pages216–222

If we export hydrogen will NZ benefit from royalties from this energy export exactly as it would from oil and gas?

At this stage no royalty regime is put in place for export of hydrogen. The Government would have to consider and evaluate the need for a royalty regime.

Safety? Every council has water leaks in their Network. Hydrogen is explosove, 14perc in air, how will we prevent a single pin hole causing blow back?

Safety is paramount in all aspects of the hydrogen sector. The benefits to our domestic economy will only be realised by a wholehearted commitment to safety in all aspects of operation.

As the hydrogen industry emerges in New Zealand, there will need to be changes to some of the regulations under the Gas Act, for example, adopting appropriate standards for managing hydrogen safety or exempting hydrogen projects from regulations around natural gas. The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment has released a discussion document around targeted changes to the Gas Act.

Furthermore, work programmes are being developed to ensure that regulations are fit for purpose for hydrogen, across the board. We are connecting across agencies to develop a unified government approach. We are already in conversations with the Environmental Protection Authority, New Zealand Transport Agency, Ministry of Environment, WorkSafe and the Gas Industry Company, amongst others to discuss the the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen, and the safety considerations that go along with this.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

As hydrogen technology becomes more mainstream, further work and safety standards will need to be adopted. Long term public acceptance of hydrogen as a safe and reliable energy vector relies on applying and adhering to established safety fundamentals and techniques to minimise the risk of harm.

When can we expect the first long haul hydrogen truck to run on NZ roads? How much do they cost?

The first medium and heavy trucks powered by hydrogen are expected in 2020. Heavy long haul and sort haul fleet trails are expected to occur in 2025 (H2 Taranaki Roadmap).

More information can be found in the H2 Taranaki Roadmap(external link) 

The Prime Minister launched the H2 Taranaki Roadmap in March 2019. This Roadmap, which was developed by Hiringa Energy with support from Venture Taranaki, New Plymouth District Council and the Provincial Growth Fund, illustrates how the region can use its existing skills and infrastructure to become a leader in hydrogen production.

Hiringa Energy has secured funding through a Provincial Growth Fund to help develop hydrogen fuel infrastructure in Taranaki. The project will scope the engineering and design of two hydrogen generation facilities, up to four mobile compressed hydrogen storage and distribution containers and up to three hydrogen refuelling stations. The establishment of hydrogen production and refuelling infrastructure will build upon the region’s existing energy sector skills and distribution networks. This will enable Taranaki to grow new business opportunities across New Zealand and deliver integrated hydrogen networks for the whole country.

Technologies are still improving further and costs are continuing to drop (from a high base) from both technical improvements and increased manufacturing volumes, however, more research is need to determine the cost of a hydrogen truck.

Hydrogen panel: can hydrogen be made at scale and stored cost effectively between seasons/years to balance hydro in dry years?

There is potential for hydrogen to support the resilience of the New Zealand energy system and enhance security of supply, including reducing dry year risk.

It can be produced by electrolysis using surplus renewable electricity when there is greater generation than demand. It can be stored directly, or indirectly in the firm of ammonia. It could then be used to generate electricity during periods of low solar or wind generation, and during dry weather events that limit hydroelectric generation.

There is still currently uncertainty about both the cost of producing hydrogen and storage costs.

Analysis of its potential role and costs as a dry year solution was undertaken by the Interim Climate Change Committee.

which is available on the ICCC site (section 5.3)(external link) as well as the technical annex(external link).

Note that the analysis considered hydrogen as a dry-year solution as a stand-alone project (i.e., not integrated into a wider hydrogen system).

Is there a place for the private sector to invest in stand-alone green hydrogen facilities?

Yes. This is already happening.

Is this best use of money and time? Why not invest in bioenergy - we have a govt strategy?

Our Government’s overall strategic direction is to encourage a shift towards renewable energy so that we can successfully transition to a low-carbon future. Biofuels could potentially contribute to this transition, where they are economically feasible and competitive relative to other renewable energy sources. To facilitate biofuel development, the Government has a number of mechanisms, such as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority’s (EECA) programmes promoting biomass for process heat. EECA is analysing the regional and site-specific availability of biomass fuel (with Scion) for large process heat users with potential to switch from fossil fuels.

The government also funded Scion's research into bio-based products, including liquid biofuels. The purpose of Scion’s Biofuels Roadmap study was to inform and stimulate debate on the large-scale production and use of liquid biofuels in New Zealand.

Information on the Biofuels Roadmap, including the New Zealand Biofuels Roadmap technical report and summary report can be found on the scion research site(external link)

A major piece of work for us this year will be to develop policies as part of a Renewable Energy Strategy work programme. We’re looking into the areas where Government action can make the biggest difference - identifying the incentives that may be needed, the roadblocks that need to be removed, and how we can help new technologies come on stream. It’s about getting the policy and regulatory settings right for us to move into an energy future that is built on greater renewables, while ensuring affordability and security.

The Renewable Energy Strategy work programme looking at options to accelerate the deployment of renewable electricity generation, to contribute to our aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035 in a normal hydrological year. It is also looking at the options for increasing the uptake of bioenergy and growing the bio economy.

Can you debunk Elon Musks bagging of Hydrogen, Elon Musk says the tech is 'mind-bogglingly stupid

According to the report published by Concept Consulting, hydrogen appears currently less competitive than direct use of electricity for most applications but could become competitive in some niche applications, such as 24/7 on-site freight loading operations or meeting energy demands for remote, off-grid locations. However, the costs and benefits of hydrogen can only be fully appreciated when the whole energy system, including life cycle analysis from cradle to grave, is analysed.

The International Energy Agency (IEA) report states that the technologies already available today enable hydrogen to produce, store, move and use energy in different ways. A wide variety of fuels are able to produce hydrogen, including renewables, nuclear, natural gas, coal and oil. It can be transported as a gas by pipelines or in liquid form by ships, much like liquefied natural gas (LNG). It can be transformed into electricity and methane to power homes and feed industry, and into fuels for cars, trucks, ships and planes. It concludes that now is the time to scale up technologies and bring down costs to allow hydrogen to become widely used.

The report states that hydrogen has the potential to help with variable output from renewables, like solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind, whose availability is not always well matched with demand. Hydrogen is one of the leading options for storing energy from renewables and looks promising to be a lowest-cost option for storing electricity over days, weeks or even months. Hydrogen and hydrogen-based fuels can transport energy from renewables over long distances – from regions with abundant solar and wind resources, such as Australia or Latin America, to energy-hungry cities thousands of kilometres away (IEA).

IEA analysis also finds that the cost of producing hydrogen from renewable electricity could fall 30% by 2030 as a result of declining costs of renewables and the scaling up of hydrogen production. Fuel cells, refuelling equipment and electrolysers (which produce hydrogen from electricity and water) can all benefit from mass manufacturing. Many other reports, including the Low Emissions report published by the NZ Productivity Commission, the Helen Clark Foundation, the H2 Taranaki Roadmap, and Australia’s hydrogen discussion paper developed by Council of Australian Governments (COAG) are consistent with the IEA report.

Internationally, demand for hydrogen is set to increase substantially over the coming decades. Countries like Japan that import most of their energy in the form of coal, oil and natural gas need cleaner energy to meet their CO2 emissions reduction targets. Therefore, Japan, South Korea, United Kingdom, Germany, France and China have invested heavily in hydrogen research, development and demonstration projects, and in some cases, national strategies. Several other nations, including Norway, Brunei and Saudi Arabia, are also actively pursuing the global hydrogen supply market.

How much more renewable electricity generation capacity is required in NZ to make this happen?

Electrification of transport and process heat will play a large role in meeting New Zealand’s emissions reductions targets.

Recent modelling by the Interim Climate Change Committee shows that New Zealand’s electricity sector could meet this demand through new generation (primarily wind), more demand-side response, and with a range of distributed technologies (primarily solar and batteries).

The Interim Climate Change Committee report, “Accelerated Electrification by 2035” analysed a scenario where 50% of the vehicle fleet are electric vehicles, and a significant amount of process heat is electrified, (about 1/3 at fossil fuel used for food manufacture, along with and all fossil fuel used for water, and space heating). It found that about 5,500 MW of new capacity would be needed, emphasizing for plant retirements. For future details, see https://www.iccc.mfe.govt.nz/what-we-do/energy/electricity-inquiry-final-report/.

Can you use sea water to create hydrogen? Or does it have to be desalinated first?

Researchers have demonstrated that it is possible to generate hydrogen from sea water. 

Stanford news article on creating hydrogen from seawater(external link)

Can the government guarantee that no taxpayer resources will go towards funding hydrogen from natural gas?

As a government, we are in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

Blue hydrogen can be made from natural gas through the process of steam methane reforming (SMR) and the possible storage of resulting CO2. The production and use of blue hydrogen is a business decision and at the discretion of each individual business. This Government will continue to progress New Zealand towards an affordable, renewable future and provide leadership in order to advance the development of a low emission ‘green’ hydrogen economy in New Zealand. Blue hydrogen may play a role in the transition towards a low emissions economy; however the focus for the Government is on green hydrogen.

Hiringa Energy has secured funding through the Provincial Growth Fund to help develop hydrogen fuel infrastructure in Taranaki. The project will scope the engineering and design of two hydrogen generation facilities, up to four mobile compressed hydrogen storage and distribution containers, and up to three hydrogen refuelling stations. The establishment of hydrogen production, storage and refuelling infrastructure will build upon the region’s existing energy sector skills and distribution networks. This will enable Taranaki to grow new business opportunities across New Zealand and deliver integrated hydrogen networks for the whole country.

What is “green” hydrogen. I assume this is not extracted from natural gas

Green hydrogen is produced by splitting water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen through a process called electrolysis, powered by solar, wind or hydro electricity. Green Hydrogen offers a flexible and clean approach to energy for New Zealand. In the domestic market, hydrogen could potentially heat our buildings, power our vehicles, supply our industrial processes and increase energy system resilience.

Blue hydrogen can be made from our natural gas through the process of steam methane reforming (SMR) and the possible storage of resulting CO2. The production and use of blue hydrogen is a business decision and at the discretion of each individual business.

The Government will continue to progress NZ towards an affordable, renewable future and provide leadership in order to advance the development of a low emission ‘green’ hydrogen economy in New Zealand.

How do you ensure decades old pipelines not leak? Is H2 not smaller than methane?

The H2 Taranaki Roadmap indicated that the establishment of hydrogen production and refuelling infrastructure will be built upon the regions existing distribution networks. However, safety is paramount in all aspects of the hydrogen sector, including in the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen.

Work programmes are being developed to ensure that regulations are fit for purpose for hydrogen, across the board. We are connecting across agencies to develop a unified government approach. We are already in conversations with the Environmental Protection Authority, New Zealand Transport Agency, Ministry of Environment, WorkSafe and the Gas Industry Company, amongst others to discuss the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen, and the safety considerations that go along with this.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

As hydrogen technology becomes more mainstream, further work and safety standards will need to be adopted.

Can hydrogen be used as feedstock for methanol production?

Yes, hydrogen can be used as feedstock for methanol production. World-wide, the top four single uses of hydrogen today (in both pure and mixed forms) are: oil refining (33%), ammonia production (27%), methanol production (11%) and steel production via the direct reduction of iron ore (3%) (International Energy Agency, 2019).

Can we discuss safety?

Safety is paramount in all aspects of the hydrogen sector. The benefits to our domestic economy will only be realised by a wholehearted commitment to safety in all aspects of operation.

As the hydrogen industry emerges in New Zealand, there will need to be changes to some of the regulations under the Gas Act, for example, adopting appropriate standards for managing hydrogen safety or exempting hydrogen projects from regulations around natural gas. The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment has released a discussion document around targeted changes to the Gas Act.

Furthermore, work programmes are being developed to ensure that regulations are fit for purpose for hydrogen, across the board. We are connecting across agencies to develop a unified government approach. We are already in conversations with the Environmental Protection Authority, New Zealand Transport Agency, Ministry of Environment, WorkSafe and the Gas Industry Company, amongst others to discuss the the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen, and the safety considerations that go along with this.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

As hydrogen technology becomes more mainstream, further work and safety standards will need to be adopted. Long term public acceptance of hydrogen as a safe and reliable energy vector relies on applying and adhering to established safety fundamentals and techniques to minimise the risk of harm.

Why would you consider exporting hydrogen while we are still burning petroleum products and coal

The primary purpose of advancing the development of a green hydrogen economy in NZ is to decarbonising of our economy. Green hydrogen could play a role in New Zealand’s energy future by supporting resilience in a renewable electricity system. Green hydrogen can be produced in many ways, to produce low emissions electricity, heat, transport fuel and industrial feedstocks. There are also opportunities to create new jobs, convert heavy transport away from fossil fuels and enhance our security of electricity supply.

New Zealand has an abundance of low emissions renewable electricity that could be used to produce green hydrogen as a next generation fuel in a sustainable way.

While the primary incentive to advance a hydrogen economy is to decarbonise our economy, there is potential for New Zealand to export hydrogen to help meet the future global demand, generate export revenue and increase our balance of trade.

Was it easy to reclaim land at Eemshaven to create the Energy hub and to build the island for storage without disaffecting indigenous peoples rights?

n/a (question posed for the panel; difficult to answer on behalf)

Where is the international Market for green hydrogen that will incentivise renewable energy build in NZ?

International demand for hydrogen has grown more than threefold since 1975. It is also set to increase substantially over coming decades, driven by Japan’s decision to put imported hydrogen at the heart of its economy. Japan imports most of their energy in the form of coal, oil and natural gas and needs cleaner energy to meet their CO2 emissions reduction targets. The Japanese Government has targeted hydrogen (ideally green) imports of 300,000 tonnes annually by 2030, ramping up to 5-10 Mt as they transition towards a decarbonised and more resilient energy system that is less reliant on nuclear and fossil fuels (METI, 2017).

Other prospective markets where hydrogen is being actively developed are China, South Korea and parts of Europe.

What cost of carbon makes hydrogen work as cost-effective for using it for transport?

There have been some reports indicating the cost of carbon that would make hydrogen cost-effective. However, the Government has not conducted research on this topic.

The Government is in the process of developing a green paper for consultation on a vision for hydrogen in New Zealand. This green paper will explore the current and future economic opportunities for hydrogen in New Zealand, with a focus on green hydrogen. This green paper and submissions on it will inform New Zealand’s Green Hydrogen Strategy.

The H2 Taranaki Roadmap, which was developed by Hiringa Energy with support from Venture Taranaki, New Plymouth District Council and the Provincial Growth Fund, illustrates how the region can use its existing skills and infrastructure to become a leader in hydrogen production.

Andrew, Can you explain further the benefits of having various operations nationally? Renewable v market v distribution etc.....

n/a (question posed for the panel; difficult to answer on behalf)

Education related questions

  • How can we best build strong partners with all parts of the education sector to take this mahi forward? Empowering young people to be leaders is our best long term hope.
  • As Liam Rutherford has commented, what about education? There is discussion about tertiary outposts, but what about a Taranaki education curriculum to work towards a Just Transition? Right across the education sector?
  • How can we ensure that our children’s education paths support the new clean energy world?
  • Totally agree that the role of the Education sector seems to be being greatly overlooked. Just as we have digital technology pds, why aren’t we getting further education and professional development around the climate crisis?

Government recognises the crucial role of the education sector in enabling a just transition. This is because of the importance of education and retraining in preparing workers for a low emissions world, and helping workers to move between jobs as the economy transitions. In addition, education can play a valuable role in educating our young people about climate change and what a just transition will mean for New Zealand.

Ensuring that the education sector is involved in an ongoing dialogue will be essential as we plan for New Zealand’s transition to a low emissions economy.

In Taranaki, the education sector was invited to participate in developing the Taranaki 2050 Roadmap. A number of representatives attended workshops to co-design the Roadmap, including from the Ministry of Education, Tertiary Education Commission and skills bodies in the region.

The 2050 Roadmap identified a number of initiatives related to education in the region, from primary through to tertiary and in-work education and training. The draft Taranaki 2050 Roadmap is publicly available on Venture Taranaki’s website and seeking public feedback. It includes ideas concerning education in the region, and we encourage people to make a submission if they feel aspects of the Roadmap need to change.

How to implement the initiatives in the 2050 Roadmap, and whether changes are needed nationally, is something New Zealanders, the education sector, businesses and government will need to decide together.

Taranaki will need to ensure the education sector continues to be engaged as the region advances its transition planning. The next steps taken in this area in Taranaki could provide some lessons for the rest of New Zealand.

In addition to the role of the education sector, businesses have a role to play in supporting a just transition for their workers, for example by providing professional development or paid leave for staff to attend training.

  • We have a massive project ahead of us around, not just educating young people, but also their parents. How can we utilise schools/kura as a vehicle to help with this mass education?
  • How can teachers take the learning from this summit back to their schools on Monday? What small steps now can we make to prepare our tamariki for what lies ahead? How do we bring Whānau into this conversation?
  • There has been talk about investing in vocational education towards a just transition, at a tertiary level, but what about investment in educating our children for a low emissions future, right from early childhood level?
  • What do the educators have to say? Where does sustainability fit in the curriculum?
  • Education is of huge importance when it comes to transitioning to a low emission future. Should environmental education be a part of our curriculum? Why is this important?

Schools can play an important role in educating young people about a just transition for New Zealand, and there are opportunities through schools’ local curriculum to bring wider whānau into this conversation.

The National Curriculum recognises that sustainability is a critical issue for New Zealand – environmentally, economically, culturally, politically, and socially. The future-focused theme of sustainability is evident throughout The New Zealand Curriculum (NZC). It is integral to the vision, principles, values, and key competencies of the NZC, and provides relevant and authentic contexts across the eight learning areas.

The NZC encourages teachers to structure learning around unifying themes such as sustainability, and provide opportunities for students to make connections between learning areas, competencies and values. The NZC requires teaching and learning approaches that draw on all elements of effective pedagogy and that focus on empowering students to take action for a sustainable future.

Sustainability in New Zealand’s Māori-medium curriculum, Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (TMoA), connects to the principle "environmental health is personal health". TMoA curriculum endorses a place for the school and kura, the family and whānau, the community, the hapū, and iwi groups to focus on the place of the student in their own world. Therefore, the local curriculum supports holistic teaching programmes and learning pathways which enable the learner to engage purposefully with the environment.

Education for sustainability (EfS) is a subject within the social sciences learning area of the New Zealand Curriculum. EfS can be taken as NCEA Level 1, 2 and 3 subject through selected achievement standards. Themed approaches can be adopted for the development of an EfS programme in schools such as a just transition.

Response to the questions above

Government recognises the crucial role of the education sector in enabling a just transition. This is because of the importance of education and retraining in preparing workers for a low emissions world, and helping workers to move between jobs as the economy transitions. In addition, education can play a valuable role in educating our young people about climate change and what a just transition will mean for New Zealand.

Ensuring that the education sector is involved in an ongoing dialogue will be essential as we plan for New Zealand’s transition to a low emissions economy.

In Taranaki, the education sector was invited to participate in developing the Taranaki 2050 Roadmap. A number of representatives attended workshops to co-design the Roadmap, including from the Ministry of Education, Tertiary Education Commission and skills bodies in the region.

The 2050 Roadmap identified a number of initiatives related to education in the region, from primary through to tertiary and in-work education and training. The draft Taranaki 2050 Roadmap is publicly available on Venture Taranaki’s website and seeking public feedback. It includes ideas concerning education in the region, and we encourage people to make a submission if they feel aspects of the Roadmap need to change.

How to implement the initiatives in the 2050 Roadmap, and whether changes are needed nationally, is something New Zealanders, the education sector, businesses and government will need to decide together.

Taranaki will need to ensure the education sector continues to be engaged as the region advances its transition planning. The next steps taken in this area in Taranaki could provide some lessons for the rest of New Zealand.

In addition to the role of the education sector, businesses have a role to play in supporting a just transition for their Schools can play an important role in educating young people about a just transition for New Zealand, and there are opportunities through schools’ local curriculum to bring wider whānau into this conversation.

The National Curriculum recognises that sustainability is a critical issue for New Zealand – environmentally, economically, culturally, politically, and socially. The future-focused theme of sustainability is evident throughout The New Zealand Curriculum (NZC). It is integral to the vision, principles, values, and key competencies of the NZC, and provides relevant and authentic contexts across the eight learning areas.

The NZC encourages teachers to structure learning around unifying themes such as sustainability, and provide opportunities for students to make connections between learning areas, competencies and values. The NZC requires teaching and learning approaches that draw on all elements of effective pedagogy and that focus on empowering students to take action for a sustainable future.

Sustainability in New Zealand’s Māori-medium curriculum, Te Marautanga o Aotearoa (TMoA), connects to the principle "environmental health is personal health". TMoA curriculum endorses a place for the school and kura, the family and whānau, the community, the hapū, and iwi groups to focus on the place of the student in their own world. Therefore, the local curriculum supports holistic teaching programmes and learning pathways which enable the learner to engage purposefully with the environment.

Education for sustainability (EfS) is a subject within the social sciences learning area of the New Zealand Curriculum. EfS can be taken as NCEA Level 1, 2 and 3 subject through selected achievement standards. Themed approaches can be adopted for the development of an EfS programme in schools such as a just transition.

Education has been skimmed over. Where are the students and what do they think is important?

The process to co-create the Taranaki 2050 Roadmap captured youth voices through a youth workshop, which 60 young people registered to participate in, and a creative challenge to describe their vision for 2050, which received 140 entries. Views that were gathered from youth in Taranaki were incorporated into the draft Roadmap.

The programme for the National Summit also included a youth panel, to capture young people’s voices in the conversation about a just transition for New Zealand.

Ongoing work on a just transition for New Zealand will need to include the voices of young people and ensure that they have the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes that will affect their future.

Is free tertiery training an alternative career pathway?

To help workers prepare for and adapt to a just transition and the changing nature of work, Government wants to ensure tertiary study and training is more affordable for first time learners. Government has introduced fees-free study in the first year of tertiary education, and no fees for the first two years of apprenticeships, to support this goal.

Where is the education sector, central government and local? Are they here? We’ve heard the students - where are the educators?

Members of the education sector attended the National Just Transition Summit, including representatives of universities, schools, the Tertiary Education Commission and the Post Primary Teachers’ Association.

The education sector was also involved in the development of the Taranaki 2050 Roadmap that was launched at the Summit. In particular, the education sector was well represented at workshops on the ‘people and talent’ topic of the Roadmap.

Goodness were hearing a lot of dollar figures being bantered around. From those of us educators who have huge demand for more help from youth, we work on the small of an (bio)oily rag. Wheres the $$$ for supporting more environmental ed?

As New Zealand plans for a just transition, decisions will need to be made about where additional funding is required and where this funding should come from.

Agree with Lauree Jones. Education has been really under done in the Taranaki Roadmap. We have such an exciting opportunity to establish the education sector as a central part of the transition process. How do we make a submission?

The Taranaki 2050 Roadmap is publicly available on Venture Taranaki’s website(external link) and seeking public feedback. We encourage people to make a submission if they feel aspects of the Roadmap need to change.

There are also significant reforms and changes taking place in the education sector, including Tomorrow’s Schools, NCEA and the Reform of Vocational Education.

For more information visit the Conversation section of the Government's Education site(external link)

All the education questions - youth, teachers, whanau, SME's, farmers, community - have disappeared off the feed. I'm assuming they've been pooled for addressing with quality amounts of time for later because the ??'s aren't going away.

No response needed.

Non-specific session related

Let’s get the language and transparency right - renewable and low carbon aren’t interchangeable terms. Geothermal whilst renewable has carbon - what’s the plan to transition away from that to more wind, solar or hydro?

As a Government we are ambitious for our energy system. We’ve set ambitious goals in this area–a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050 and an aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035. We aim to make the long term transition of our economy towards renewable energy while ensuring that our energy supply remains secure, affordable and sustainable in the years and decades to come. A just transition is about making sure that the Government carefully plans and collaborates with iwi, communities, regions and sectors to manage the impacts and maximise the opportunities of the changes brought about by the transition to a low emissions economy.

A major piece of work for us this year will be to develop policies as part of a Renewable Energy Strategy work programme. We’re looking into the areas where Government action can make the biggest difference - identifying the incentives that may be needed, the roadblocks that need to be removed, and how we can help new technologies come on stream. It’s about getting the policy and regulatory settings right for us to move into an energy future that is built on greater renewables, while ensuring affordability and security.

One part of the Renewable Energy Strategy work programme is accelerating renewable electricity generation. Work is underway to look at options to accelerate the deployment of renewable electricity generation, to contribute to our aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035 in a normal hydrological year. This work includes identifying barriers and developing policy options to reduce them. Recently, Mercury Energy announced that it will proceed with the construction of the first 33 of 60 consented wind turbines at Turitea near Palmerston North, representing a milestone in New Zealand’s renewable energy development. This indicates that investors are seeing greater potential and opportunities for renewable energy in New Zealand.

The Government is investing $27 million to establish a National New Energy Development Centre in Taranaki. It will help create new business and jobs in Taranaki while helping New Zealand move towards clean, affordable, renewable energy and away from fossil fuels. The centre will look at the full range of emerging clean energy options such as offshore wind, solar batteries, hydrogen and new forms of energy storage.

This Centre will complement our investments in hydrogen, Green Investment Finance Ltd, the Zero Carbon Bill and our upcoming renewable energy strategy to help New Zealand create new jobs in new industries while moving away from fossil fuels that cause climate change.

The Government has also committed $20 million over four years to establish a new science research fund for cutting edge energy technology, so that we can explore new technologies such as organic photovoltaics, super conductors nanotechnologies and inductive power.

Earlier this year we introduced the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Bill to Parliament. The independent Climate Change Commission, established by the Zero Carbon Bill, will support our emissions reduction targets through advice, guidance, and regular five-yearly “emissions budgets”. The Bill also creates a legal obligation on the Government to plan for how it will support New Zealand towns and cities, business, farmers and iwi to adapt to the increasingly severe storms, floods, fires and droughts we are experiencing as a result of climate change. The Bill will ensure New Zealand’s zero carbon transition is fair and cost-effective.

Our work programme is comprehensive. It’s about getting the policy and regulatory settings right for us to move into an energy future that is built on greater renewable energy while ensuring affordability and security.

Do you support government incentives for installation of solar energy panels and batteries in private households

As a Government we are ambitious for our energy system. We’ve set ambitious goals in this area–a clean, green, carbon neutral economy by 2050 and an aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035. We aim to make the long term transition of our economy towards renewable energy while ensuring that our energy supply remains secure, affordable and sustainable in the years and decades to come. A just transition is about making sure that the Government carefully plans and collaborates with iwi, communities, regions and sectors to manage the impacts and maximise the opportunities of the changes brought about by the transition to a low emissions economy.

A major piece of work for us this year will be to develop policies as part of a Renewable Energy Strategy work programme. We’re looking into the areas where Government action can make the biggest difference - identifying the incentives that may be needed, the roadblocks that need to be removed, and how we can help new technologies come on stream. It’s about getting the policy and regulatory settings right for us to move into an energy future that is built on greater renewables, while ensuring affordability and security.

One part of the Renewable Energy Strategy work programme is accelerating renewable electricity generation. Work is underway to look at options to accelerate the deployment of renewable electricity generation, to contribute to our aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035 in a normal hydrological year. This work includes identifying barriers and developing policy options to reduce them.

The Government has committed $20 million over four years to establish a new science research fund for cutting edge energy technology, so that we can explore new technologies such as organic photovoltaics, super conductors, nanotechnologies and inductive power.

The Provincial Growth Fund (PGF) will loan $7.5 million to support the development of the Opuke Thermal Pools and Spa complex in Methven to complement the neighbouring Mount Hutt Ski Field. The facility will be the first of its kind in New Zealand to be heated by solar power and will produce no emissions. The Government will continue to support the uptake of renewable energy in NZ.

However at this stage, using solar panels and batteries in private homes is a decision for individual households to make.

Earlier this year we introduced the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Bill to Parliament. The independent Climate Change Commission, established by the Zero Carbon Bill, will support our emissions reduction targets through advice, guidance, and regular five-yearly “emissions budgets”. The Bill also creates a legal obligation on the Government to plan for how it will support New Zealand towns and cities, business, farmers and iwi to adapt to the increasingly severe storms, floods, fires and droughts we are experiencing as a result of climate change. The Bill will ensure New Zealand’s zero carbon transition is fair and cost-effective.

Our plan is all about moving us towards a renewable future and providing leadership in order to advance research, innovation and new technologies in New Zealand.

Great question Pat Swanson - to build on this, shouldn’t we be investing heavily in perpetual motion technology?

A perpetual motion machine is a hypothetical machine that cannot work indefinitely without an energy source.

As "perpetual motion" can exist only in isolated systems, and true isolated systems do not exist, there are not any real "perpetual motion" devices. There are concepts and technical drafts that propose "perpetual motion", but on closer analysis it is revealed that they actually "consume" some sort of natural resource or latent energy, such as the phase changes of water or other fluids or small natural temperature gradients, or simply cannot sustain indefinite operation. In general, extracting work from these devices is impossible.

Has anyone modelled how much land area we’d need to replace the current NZ demand for petrol in cars with tree based biofuels ?

Scion carried out the Biofuels Roadmap study to inform and stimulate debate on the large-scale production and use of liquid biofuels in New Zealand.

A biofuelled future will:

  • Reduce our greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
  • Help us meet our international GHG reduction commitments
  • Rejuvenate regional economic and employment growth
  • Make New Zealand less dependent on oil imports
  • Maintain access to international markets for our goods and services

More research is needed to model how much land area would be needed to replace the current NZ demand for petrol in cars with tree based biofuels .

Information about the Biofuels roadmap, including the roadmap can be found on the Scion Reseach website(external link)

The focus in the energy sector often seems to be on how we can generate more, and cleaner energy. Should we not be working even harder on creating greater energy efficiencies and using less net energy?

Changing how industry uses energy will be a crucial component in New Zealand’s transition to a productive, low emissions economy. The Government has work underway to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with industrial energy use and process heat. The Government will be consulting later in 2019 on options to encourage energy efficiency in industrial sector use of energy and to decarbonise process heat through uptake of renewable fuels (e.g. electrification and biofuels).

There are strong interdependencies between accelerating renewable electricity generation and encouraging changes in industrial energy use, to use energy more efficiency. The electrification of industrial sites could be a major driver of delivering cleaner energy use in the industrial sector.

The Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment is working with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority on the Process Heat in New Zealand (PHiNZ) initiative. PHiNZ is looking into the opportunities for, and barriers to, improving the energy efficiency of process heat and increasing the input of renewable energy.

The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) also actively works with large energy and heat-users to support efficiency improvements and emissions reduction, including administering grants and loans.

Our hydro lakes currently comprise the most efficient energy storage in New Zealand, followed by the likes of Ahuroa gas in Stratford and a large pile of coal in Huntley, what will be the energy storage in NZ for dry winters in 2050?

A major piece of work for us this year will be to develop policies as part of an upcoming Renewable Energy Strategy work programme. We’re looking into the areas where Government action can make the biggest difference - identifying the incentives that may be needed, the roadblocks that need to be removed, and how we can help new technologies come on stream. It’s about getting the policy and regulatory settings right for us to move into an energy future that is built on greater renewables, while ensuring affordability and security.

One part of the Renewable Energy Strategy work programme is accelerating renewable electricity generation. Work is underway to look at options to accelerate the deployment of renewable electricity generation, to contribute to our aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035 in a normal hydrological year. This work includes identifying barriers and developing policy options to reduce them. Additional work will be the dry year security supply considerations of moving towards 100 per cent renewable electricity.

The Interim Climate Change Committee in its recent report, “Accelerated Electrification” examined different storage options and recommended further study of pumped hydro storage. The International Energy Agency (IEA) in contrast in its recent report on hydrogen indicated a much greater role for hydrogen in supporting the resilience of the energy system and enhancing security of supply, including reducing dry year risk. Hydrogen could be produced by electrolysis using surplus renewable electricity when there is greater generation than demand. It could be stored directly, or indirectly in the firm of ammonia. It could then be used to generate electricity during periods of low solar or wind generation, and during dry weather events that limit hydroelectric generation.

Analysis of its potential role and costs as a dry year solution was undertaken by the Interim Climate Change Committee.

ICCC Electricty report(external link)

ICCC modelling dry year storage options analysis(external link)

IEA's Future of Hydrogen report(external link)

Various questions

  • The power industry is still dominated by big companies with major generation sites. What would be the benefits of a model of distributed micro-generation that is backed-up by big generation, instead of the current inverse model?
  • How can more private homes become off grid and self-sufficient. This would mean less infrastructure and carbon emissions.
  • Would it not be better for private homes to be self-sufficient with energy generation and possibly supply the grid with their excess?
  • What will government do to allow greater solar take up by homes, businesses, etc to allow a better renewable mix and more decentralised energy? Especially lower lines charges and higher feed in tariffs? Esp as production & use are close.

Answers to the questions above:

Large-scale generation such as wind farms, geothermal, and hydro-electric stations, already provide costeffective and low emissions electricity in New Zealand. Another way of harnessing the power of New Zealand’s abundant renewable resources is through small-scale electricity generation, also known as ‘micro-generation’. This can be at a household, business or community scale.

Private homes can generate their own electricity and potentially become self-sufficient, depending on their location and energy needs. Excess electricity generated can be sold back to the grid if the home is gridconnected (most are). Options for home generation include: solar PV, micro hydro systems and small wind turbines. Unless the small scale generation is completely off-grid, it will always be backed by large-scale generation.

The Energy and Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) has information available on its website which helps consumers and businesses learn about how these options work(external link), whether they stack up for the household, and how to get the best out of them. EECA has also published a guide, Power from the people: a guide to micro-generation(external link), which explains these options in detail.

The potential benefits of small scale generation include:

  • financial benefits to investors by reducing reliance on grid-supplied electricity
  • positive impact on the environment (if it is based on renewable sources)
  • community ownership and self-sufficiency
  • increased energy resilience
  • decreased transmission and distribution costs

Small-scale generation may also allow previously passive consumers of electricity to become more engaged and active participants in managing their energy needs.

In many remote sites, off-grid power systems using renewable energy technologies are already often more economic than relying on diesel generators, or financing the costs of a new or replacement connection to the local electricity network.

Technology improvements and decreasing costs of some micro-generation, especially PV, along with rising energy prices and a growing popular interest in sustainability, mean that small-scale generation is likely to become increasingly attractive and cost competitive, leading to greater uptake.

However, small-scale generation can be expensive to install, so careful research about the options and costs is recommended. There may be other, cheaper ways of reducing emissions from electricity use, such as installing insulation, energy-efficient appliances, and LED lighting systems.

One of the challenges of becoming self-sufficient is the intermitted nature of these options along with the relatively small amount of electricity generated. Self-sufficiency requires careful management of energy use and most likely the use of batteries to store energy. If a home is grid-connected, it is more economic to use electricity from the grid, which is predominantly from renewable sources.

Does widespread home power generation via solar play a role in achieving 100% sustainable energy?

Solar PV on homes and business can contribute to increasing the amount of low-emissions electricity in New Zealand. Recent modelling by the Interim Climate Change Committee (ICCC) showed that solar PV could contribute about two per cent of generation by 2035 (it is currently about 0.1 per cent), and Transpower’s Te Mauri Hiko analysis finds that distributed solar PV generation becomes a material contributor by 2050, but alongside significant new large scale generation is also required.

The contribution that solar can make is limited by its generation profile – household electricity needs are typically greater in winter when heating and lighting needs increase, but this is also when there is less generation from solar PV. This can be overcome to a certain extent through battery storage, although this increases the cost of solar PV. Solar PV can give consumers more control over their energy and enable them to become more engaged and active participants in managing their energy needs.

Te Mauri Hiko on the Transpower site(external link)

How is the grid going to be future proofed? Considering the adoption of unregulated personal energy generation, large anticipated demand with increasing uptake of EVs all whilst limiting carbon emissions.

The Electricity Price Review (Review) is now complete. It investigated whether the current electricity market delivered a fair and equitable price to consumers. This review also considered how to future-proof the sector and its governance structures to help ensure the electricity sector functions well during New Zealand’s transition away from carbon-based fuels – a consideration that will become increasingly important as electricity meets more of New Zealand’s energy needs, and as new technologies are adopted. The Review Panel published its first report for discussion in 2018 and the Options paper on 20 February 2019.

The first report looked at the reliability of the national grid and found the electricity sector is on the threshold of significant change. The current one-way supply of electricity to a waiting base of passive consumers will become a two-way flow as consumers generate power from solar panels and install more sophisticated battery technology. Offsetting this greater self-reliance will be the more widespread use of rechargeable vehicles and the electrification of the economy generally. This will substantially increase demand for electricity and test the reliability and security of the power supply and the grid that supports it.

The options proposed in the Options paper aim to encourage innovation, ensure a broader, more co-ordinated approach by government agencies and ensure a stable, resilient supply of electricity in the face of these looming challenges. Other options discussed will also help the electricity sector embrace new technology and business models. To achieve New Zealand’s climate change objectives, the electricity sector will need to see the proactive adoption of new technologies, and new roles for consumers, distribution networks and new service providers.

How do we address the embodied energy concerns of clean techs in comparison with fossil fuel emissions?

The costs and benefits of clean technologies such as electric vehicles and wind turbines are only fully appreciated when the whole energy system, including life cycle analysis is analysed.

Research shows that wind turbines, used to generate renewable energy, typically take only a number of months to produce as much energy as is required in their manufacture and operation. With a life expectancy of upwards of 20 years, the energy produced by wind turbines over their life can be many times greater than that embodied in their production.

A Life Cycle Analysis report commissioned by the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) found that electric vehicles (EVs) are better for the New Zealand environment than petrol or diesel powered vehicles, across the lifecycle of the vehicle as well as in use.

The Life Cycle Analysis was conducted by an international consultancy team of ARUP and Verdant Vision using ISO methodology to assess environmental impacts based on eight different indicators. This is the first study undertaken for the New Zealand context, and looked at the impacts of a vehicle across its entire life – from resource extraction to production, use on the road and finally disposal at the end of the vehicle’s life.

Across the lifecycle, pure EVs have around 60% fewer CO2 emissions than petrol vehicles. When we just look at the CO2 emissions from use, New Zealand’s high proportion of renewable electricity generation means EVs have around 80% fewer CO2 emissions when driven in New Zealand.

The analysis also found that across the lifecycle, around 40% less energy is required for an EV than a petrol or diesel vehicle. Electric vehicles also have lower levels of photochemical oxidation (related to the formation of smog) than petrol vehicles and EVs have the lowest level of particulate matter across the lifecycle. In use, EVs have no tailpipe emissions at all.

The report addresses two urban myths around EVs. The analysis found that there was no significant difference in the depletion of rare earth metals between EVs and petrol or diesel vehicles. Further, the lithium used in lithium-ion batteries for EVs, actually present in the form of salts, is neither a rare-earth nor even a precious metal.

The analysis also found that there are no significant differences across the vehicle types with regard to resource depletion, air acidification, human-toxicity and eco-toxicity lifecycle indicators.

The full report can be downloaded from EECA’s website(external link)

Are any mechanisms going to be established to allow citizen and community & iwi ownership of wind farms? Even if developed by other private companies.

As a Government we are ambitious for our energy system. One part of the Renewable Energy Strategy work programme is accelerating renewable electricity generation. Work is underway to look at options to accelerate the deployment of renewable electricity generation, to contribute to our aspirational goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2035 in a normal hydrological year. This work includes identifying barriers and developing policy options to reduce them. As part of the Governments effort to reduce emissions, the Interim Climate Change Committee has provided advice on the transition to 100% renewable electricity by 2035. The report which was produced by the Interim Climate Change is titled “Accelerated Electrification”. The report recommended that the Government provides for the development of wind generation and its associated transmission and distribution infrastructure. The report also recommended barriers to distributed and off-grid renewable generation are identified and addressed, and ways to ensure communities can participate are considered.

'Accelerated electrification' and related reports on the ICCC website(external link)

The Government’s response to the Interim Climate Committee’s report is set out in the Cabinet paper: Proposed response to the Interim Climate Change Committee’s recommendations on accelerated electrification. [PDF, 858 KB]